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LESSON 2 Restoring the Union Reconstruction • A controversial period from 1865 to 1877 to restore and reorganize the United States after the Civil War. • The war ended slavery and settled the issues of nullification and secession, but pressing questions remained. oHow and when should Southern states be accepted back into the Union? oShould the South be punished for the war? oWhat rights, if any, should be granted to former slaves? Presidential Reconstruction Lincoln’s Plan “With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan -- to do all which may achieve and cherish a just, and a lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.” Presidential Reconstruction Lincoln’s Plan • Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction o Full pardons (amnesty) for all Southerners except high-ranking Confederate officials • Readmission to Union, only if… o 10% of people who voted in 1860 pledge loyalty to the United States o Former Confederate states support emancipation • Limited suffrage for former slaves Congressional Reconstruction A Difference of Opinion • Radical Republicans, a small, but loud group of Republicans, disagreed with Lincoln’s plan. • They wanted to punish the South, so they proposed that— o 50% of Southerners take loyalty oath o Former Confederate leaders be stripped of any political power o Former slaves be granted full civil rights • Lincoln killed the proposed plan with a pocket veto. A Difference of Opinion The President v. Congress • The disagreement between Lincoln and Radicals in his party caused a stalemate between the president and Congress. • Before their differences could be resolved, Lincoln was assassinated. • Lincoln’s vice president, Andrew Johnson, became president and inherited the stalemate. • Johnson’s relations with Congress would grow steadily worse. Presidential Reconstruction Johnson’s Plan • Kept most of Lincoln’s ideas but also required states to— oDeclare secession illegal oRatify the 13th Amendment oThe 13th Amendment outlawed the institution of slavery, thus bringing the US closer to its goal of safeguarding the unalienable rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. • Also demanded that wealthy planters and high-ranking Confederates ask him personally for forgiveness Presidential Reconstruction Johnson’s Plan • By December 1865, all former Confederate states had met Johnson’s requirements for readmission to the Union. • Johnson considered Reconstruction complete. • Southern states held elections and rebuilt their state governments. • Many former Confederates regained power. Presidential Reconstruction States Pass Harsh Black Codes • Southern states passed black codes to help restore order to the South. • Similar to the old slave codes, these laws applied only to African Americans and severely restricted their freedom. • South Carolina and Mississippi had some of the harshest black codes of all the Southern states. This engraving shows a black man convicted of “vagrancy” being auctioned off to the highest bidder. How does this image illustrate the impact of black codes on freedmen? Presidential Reconstruction Congress Reacts • Republicans in Congress refused to seat former Confederates when they returned to Washington, DC. • Reconstruction was far from complete … • Radical Republicans were ready to challenge the president. Congressional Reconstruction • Republicans in Congress took steps to protect freedpeople and grant them civil rights. oPassed a bill to extend the life of Freedmen’s Bureau. oPassed the Civil Rights Act of 1866. • Johnson vetoed both measures; Congress overrode the president’s veto. • Congress then passed the 14th Amendment. • The 14th Amendment said that all people born in the US were citizens. Congressional Reconstruction • The Radical Republican’s plan for Reconstruction was mainly to protect the rights of the newly freed slaves. They openly supported the Freedmen’s Bureau. • They believed that Lincoln’s Reconstruction plan was too lenient on the South. • Lincoln wanted Reconstruction to be simple and easy to end the war quickly. Congressional Reconstruction Republicans Gain Control of Congress • President Johnson toured the country in 1866 to support Democrats running for Congress. • He also urged states not to ratify the 14th Amendment. • His actions helped Republicans win a landslide victory in elections that year. • Republicans now had a “veto-proof” majority in Congress and would take full control of Reconstruction. Race Riots in Memphis and New Orleans In both cities, angry whites attacked freedmen. Nearly 100 blacks and fewer than a dozen whites died in the attacks. How do you think this bloodshed would influence Republicans in Congress? Radical Reconstruction Military Reconstruction • Republicans in Congress restarted Reconstruction. • The South was divided into five military districts. • Each district placed under martial law. • Union troops were stationed in the South to prevent violence and protect freedmen. • Southern states faced strict requirements for readmission. Radical Reconstruction Congress Impeaches President Johnson What does it mean to impeach a president, or any government official? What legal reason did Congress give for impeaching Johnson? What was the real reason behind his impeachment? Even though Johnson was not removed from office, how did impeachment affect him? Radical Reconstruction South Carolina’s 1868 Constitution • States needed to revise their constitutions to be readmitted to the Union. • Most white South Carolinians opposed this new constitution because it was written by freedmen, Northerners, and Southerners who supported freedmen. • Women gained the right to own property after marriage in this new constitution. Republican Rule • During Reconstruction, African Americans held the largest majority in the Republicancontrolled state legislature. Given that some legislators in South Carolina’s government at this time were former slaves, what can you imagine it must have been like for them to serve in the state’s government? Realities of Sharecropping • Planters needed to enter into sharecropping agreements with their former slaves because they needed workers to plant and harvest crops. • Small farmers were angry and often hostile towards African American sharecroppers. They believed the African Americans created unfair competition. • Sharecroppers were often in debt they could not repay. The crop lien system perpetuated the endless cycle of debt. Politics in the South • The planter elite often refused to vote or take part in the government, as they viewed it to be corrupted by Scalawags and Carpetbagger who had taken over. • A scalawag was a Southerner who cooperated with Republican politicians. • A carpetbagger was a nickname Southerners gave to Northern whites who moved to the South with plans to help the freedmen. These people often moved with all their belongings in a carpetbag.