Download Biochemistry study guide 2012-2013 ANSWERS

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Biochemistry Study Guide
1. Draw the water molecule. Label the Hydrogen, Oxygen, and positive/negative ends.
2. Why is water polar? Because there is an unequal sharing of electrons between oxygen and hydrogen
3. Covalent is the bond that forms when electrons are shared (Ex. the bond that connects the hydrogen atoms to
the oxygen atom)
4. What kind of bond attaches one water molecule to another? Hydrogen
5. Cohesion is the attraction of water molecules to other water molecules.
6. Adhesion is the attraction of water molecules to other substances (Ex. water on a windshield)
7. How are surface tension and cohesion related? Surface tension occurs because the water molecules stick
together through cohesion forming a “film” or “layer” of water molecules.
8. What is capillary action and give an example of it. Capillary action is the ability of water to “climb” up or rise
up a surface against the force of gravity because of adhesion. An example would be water climbing up a straw
when the straw is placed in a cup of water.
9. What is a solution? Give an example including the solute and solvent. A solution is a mixture. In this mixture, a
solute is what is being mixed into the solvent (ex. Kool-aid powder being dissolved into water) and the solvent
is what the solute is being dissolved into (ex.Water is what the Kool-aid powder dissolves in).
10. What does the pH scale measure? How acidic or how basic a solution
For the substances below tell whether they are an acid or a base.
a. Lemon Juice has a pH of 2.5 - Acid
b. Soap has a pH of 10 - Base
c. Seawater has a pH of 8.5 - Base
11. What is a macromolecule? A large molecule (or polymer) made of many monomers
12. List the 4 macromolecules. Protein, Carbohydrate, Lipid, and Nucleic Acid
13. What is a monomer? A monomer is one single subunit that when linked together makes a polymer
List the correct macromolecule for the following examples.
Nucleic Acid
Cellulose and Glycogen
Builds and repairs Muscle and bone
Keratin, hair, and skin
Actin and Myosin (muscle tissue)
Disaccharide and Polysaccharide
Makes up Membranes
Which macromolecule is used for quick energy? Carbohydrate Stored energy? Lipid
Give 3 examples of carbohydrates. Glycogen, Starch, and Cellulose
Which group of macromolecules stores genetic information ( includes DNA)? Nucleic Acids
Give three examples of lipids. Fats, Oils, and Waxes
A Lipid is made of one glycerol and 3 fatty acid tails.
Proteins are made of thousands of Amino Acid monomers.
Which elements are found in carbohydrates? CHO Lipids? CHO Proteins ? CHON
Is starch a polysaccharide, monosaccharide, or disaccharide? Polysaccharide
Nucleic Acids? CHNOP
What is this monomer called? Glucose (monosaccharide) What macromolecule does it form? Carbohydrate
23. DNA and RNA are examples of nucleic acids.
What is this? Nucleotide
What macromolecule does this monomer
make? Nucleic Acids
24. Carbohydrates are made of single sugar monomers called monosaccharides.
25. Carbon is an element found in all of the macromolecules.
26. What is a catalyst? A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reactions
27. What is the function of an enzyme? To speed up chemical reactions
28. Draw an enzyme reaction. Label the enzyme, active site, substrate, and products.
29. What happens when an enzyme is denatured? The enzyme’s shape changes and becomes non-functional
30. What are factors that can denature an enzyme? pH and temperature
31. What is the optimal (best) pH for this enzyme? pH of 7