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Allantois / placenta
Chick Embryo
Figure 2.22 The Amniote Chick Egg, Showing the Membranes Enfolding the 7-Day Embryo
Chick Embryo
Human Embryo
Human Embryo
Human Embryo
Human Embryo
NOWSignaling in patterning in other systems
VERTEBRATE…+
Figure 10.22(1) Summary of Experiments by Nieuwkoop and by Nakamura and
Takasaki, Showing Mesodermal Induction by Vegetal Endoderm
Figure 10.23 The Regional Specificity of Mesoderm Iinduction Can Be
Demonstrated by Recombining Blastomeres of 32-Cell Xenopus Embryos
Figure 10.22(2) Summary of Experiments by Nieuwkoop and by Nakamura and
Takasaki, Showing Mesodermal Induction by Vegetal Endoderm
Figure 10.24 The Role of Wnt Pathway Proteins in Dorsal-Ventral Axis
Specification
Inject
Dominant
Inactive GSK-3
Active
No
No
Figure 10.25(1) Model of the Mechanism by which the Disheveled Protein Stabilizes
b-catenin in the Dorsal Portion of the Amphibian Egg
Figure 10.25(2) Model of the Mechanism by which the Disheveled Protein Stabilizes
b-catenin in the Dorsal Portion of the Amphibian Egg
Beta-catenin signal on dorsal, not ventral side of embryo
Active
No
No
Figure 23.13 Three Modifications of the Wnt Pathway
Overlap of TGF-beta signal and Beta-catenin signal specifies Nieuwkoop center
Figure 10.26 Events Hypothesized to Bring about the Induction of the
Organizer in the Dorsal Mesoderm
In
organizer
Figure 10.27 Mesoderm Induction and Organizer Formation by the Interaction of
b-catenin And TGF-b Proteins
The Organizer:
Figure 4.16(1) Microarray Analysis of Those Genes Whose Expression in the Early
Xenopus Embryo Is Caused by the Activin-Like Protein Nodal-Related 1 (Xnr1)
Figure 4.16(2) Microarray Analysis of Those Genes Whose Expression in the Early
Xenopus Embryo Is Caused by the Activin-Like Protein Nodal-Related 1 (Xnr1)
Figure 10.28 Ability of goosecoid mRNA to Induce a New Axis
Figure 10.31 Localization of Noggin mRNA in the Organizer Tissue,
Shown by In Situ Hybridization
Noggin is secreted
protein, interacts
with BMPs
Figure 10.30 Rescue of Dorsal Structures by Noggin Protein
Figure 10.32 Localization of Chordin mRNA
Chordin protein also
interacts with BMPs
Figure 10.34 Cerberus mRNA injected into a Single D4 Blastomere of a 32-Cell
Xenopus Embryo Induces Head Structures as Well as a Duplicated Heart and Liver
Cerebrus also interacts
with BMPs
Figure 10.33 Model for the Action of the Organizer
Figure 23.14 Homologous Pathways Specifying Neural Ectoderm in Protostomes
(Drosophila) and Deuterostomes (Xenopus)
Figure 10.35 Paracrine Factors From the Organizer are Able to Block
Certain Other Paracrine Factors
Figure 10.36 Xwnt8 Is Capable of Ventralizing the Mesoderm and Preventing
Anterior Head Formation in the Ectoderm
Figure 10.37 Frzb Expression and Function
Figure 10.39 Ectodermal Bias Toward Neurulation
Figure 10.40 Regional Specificity of Induction can be Demonstrated by Implanting
Different Regions (Color) of the Archenteron Roof into Early Triturus Gastrulae
Figure 10.41 Regionally Specific Inducing Action of the Dorsal Blastopore Lip
Figure 10.42(3) The Wnt Signaling Pathway and Posteriorization of the Neural
Tube
Figure 10.44 Organizer Function and Axis Specification in the Xenopus Gastrula
Beta-catenin NON-FROG
Figure 8.11 Ability of the Micromeres to Induce Presumptive Ectodermal
Cells to Acquire Other Fates
Figure 8.12(1) The Role of b-catenin in Specifying the Vegetal
Cells of the Sea Urchin Embryo
Figure 8.12(2) The Role of b-catenin in Specifying the Vegetal
Cells of the Sea Urchin Embryo
Figure 8.12(3) The Role of b-catenin in Specifying the Vegetal
Cells of the Sea Urchin Embryo
Figure 8.13 The Micromere Regulatory Network Proposed by
Davidson and Colleagues (2002)
Figure 8.14(1) A Model of Endoderm Specification
Figure 8.14(2) A Model of Endoderm Specification
Figure 8.14(3) A Model of Endoderm Specification
Figure 11.9 Axis formation in the Zebrafish Embryo
Figure 11.8 The Embryonic Shield as Organizer in the Fish Embryo
Sonic
Hedgehog
In ventral
midline
Figure 11.10 B-Catenin Activates Organizer Genes in the Zebrafish
Figure 11.18 Formation of the Nieuwkoop Center in Frogs And Chicks
Figure 11.19 Formation of Hensen’s Node From Koller’s Sickle
Figure 8.39 Autonomous Specification by a Morphogenetic Factor
Figure 8.40 Antibody Staining of b-catenin Protein Shows
Its Involvement with Endoderm Formation
Figure 4.17 In Situ Hybridization Showing the Expression of the Pax6 Gene in the
Developing Mouse Eye
EYE
Figure 4.17 In Situ Hybridization Showing the Expression of the Pax6 Gene in the
Developing Mouse Eye
Figure 4.18(1) Whole-Mount In Situ Hybridization Localizing Pax6 mRNA
in Early Chick Embryos
Figure 4.18(2) Whole-Mount In Situ Hybridization Localizing Pax6 mRNA
in Early Chick Embryos
Figure 5.7 Regulatory Regions of the Mouse Pax6 Gene
Figure 5.15 The Enhancer Trap Technique
Figure 5.16 Targeted Expression of the Pax6 Gene in a Drosophila Non-eye Imaginal Disc
Figure 6.1
Ectodermal Competence and the Ability to Respond to the Optic Vesicle Inducer in Xenopus
Figure 6.2 Induction of Optic and Nasal Structures by Pax6 in the Rat Embryo
Figure 6.3 Recombination Experiments with Pax6-Deficient Rats
Figure 6.4(1) Lens Induction in Amphibians
Figure 6.4(2) Lens Induction in Amphibians
Figure 6.4(3) Lens Induction in Amphibians
Figure 6.5(3) Schematic Diagram of the Induction of the Mouse Lens