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Chapter 1 The Ancient Near East: The First Civilizations The First Humans Hominids Australopithecines (3-4 million years ago; simple stone tools; limited to Africa) Homo Erectus (1.5 million years ago; larger, more varied tools; moves into Europe and Asia) The Emergence of Homo Sapiens (“wise human being”) Neanderthals, (c. 100,000 – 30,000 years ago) Homo sapiens sapiens, (c. 200,000 B.C.E. – Present) “Wise, wise human being” Neander Valley, Germany; other parts of Europe, Middle East More advanced stone tools; burial of the dead Replaced Neanderthals Spread throughout the world The spread of humans: out of Africa or multiregional? The Hunter-Gatherers of the Old Stone Age Paleolithic Age, (c. 2.5 million years ago – 10,000 years ago) Hunting and Gathering Nomadic Bands (20 – 30 people) Division of Labor between Men and Women Discovery of Fire (c. 500,000 B.C.E.) Source of light and heat; cooking of food Cultural Activities Cave paintings: Chauvet in France The Neolithic Revolution (c. 10,000 – 4000 B.C.E.) An Agricultural Revolution Shift from hunting and gathering to systematic growing of food Neolithic Farming Villages Permanent settlements (Çatal Hüyük) The Neolithic Revolution (c. 10,000 – 4000 B.C.E.) Consequences of the Neolithic Revolution Trade Specialized division of labor Improved tools Domestication of animals Development of writing Use of metals Copper + tin = bronze The Bronze Age (c. 3000 B.C. – c. 1200 B.C.E.) The Emergence of Civilization Six Characteristics of Civilization Urban focus (cities as important centers of development) Distinct religious structure (gods; priests) Political and military structures (bureaucracy; armies) Social structure based on economic power Writing (record keeping) Artistic and intellectual activity Civilization in Mesopotamia The City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia Sumerian cities Origins (c. 3000 B.C.E.) City-States (Eridu, Ur, Uruk, Umma, Lagash) Temples to the gods / ziggurats Theocracy (gods rule the cities through priests) Kingship (divine in origin) Economy and society Primarily agricultural with some trade Four major social groups: nobles, dependent commoners, free commoners, and slaves Empires in Ancient Mesopotamia The Early Dynastic Age (3000 – 2340 B.C.E.) The Akkadian Empire (c. 2340 – c. 2150 B.C.E.) Sargon Naram-Sin (c. 2260-2223 B.C.E.) Third Dynasty of Ur (c. 2112 – 2000 B.C.E.) Instability; warfare between city states The Amorites Hammurabi’s Empire (1792 – 1750 B.C.E.) The Code of Hammurabi A Collection of 282 Laws Revealing Strict Justice and Severe Penalties The principle of retaliation and its impact “An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth” Responsibility of public officials Consumer protections Agriculture and trade Domestic affairs, marriage, and family Women’s rights and limitations The Culture of Mesopotamia The Importance of Religion City-states’ links with gods and goddesses The Epic of Gilgamesh Polytheistic (belief in many gods) Human beings subservient to gods Divination The Culture of Mesopotamia Writing (c. 3000 B.C.E.) Cuneiform = “wedge-shaped” Uses: record keeping, monumental texts, teaching texts Literature and the Communication of Ideas Mathematics and Astronomy Number system based on 60 Geometry Astronomy Egyptian Civilization: “The Gift of the Nile” The Impact of Geography The “miracle” of the Nile: annual, predictable flooding The food surplus of the fertile valley Transportation Security Changelessness The Old and Middle Kingdoms Upper and Lower Egypt United (c. 3100 B.C.E.) The Old Kingdom (c. 2575 – 2125 B.C.E.) Prosperity and stability Pharaohs (divine kings, absolute rulers) Ma’at Bureaucracy and the office of vizier Nomes (provinces) The First Intermediate Period (c. 2125 – 2010 B.C.E.) The Middle Kingdom (c. 2010 – 1630 B.C.E.) Society and Economy in Ancient Egypt Organized Hierarchically Pharaoh at the top Upper class (nobles and priests) Merchants and artisans Trade Lower classes: serfs Majority of population Bound to land Tax payers Military and labor service The Culture of Egypt Spiritual Life and Egyptian Society Religion Sun cult (Atum; Re) Osiris, Isis, and Seth The Pyramids Book of the Dead Designed as a city of the dead Physical body and spiritual body (ka) Mummification Great Pyramid at Giza (c. 2540 B.C.E.) Art and Writing Functional and integral in ritual Writing (hieroglyphs: “priest-carvings”) Disorder and a New Order: The New Kingdom Second Intermediate Period (c. 1630 – 1539 B.C.E.) Hyksos invasion Bronze Age New Kingdom (c. 1539 – 1069 B.C.E.) Militarism and imperialism Disorder and a New Order: The New Kingdom Akhenaton and Religious Change From Amenhotep IV (c. 1353 – 1336 B.C.E.) to Akhenaton Tutankhamen (c. 1332 – 1322 B.C.E.) Introducing worship of the Aten (god of the sun disk) Restoration of old gods The End of Empire Ramesses II (c. 1279 – 1213 B.C.E.) Decline (after 1069 B.C.E.) Daily Life in Ancient Egypt Marriage Husband as master of the house Wife as in charge of the household and the education of children Women Labor, property, and inheritance Hatshepsut, female pharaoh Arranged marriages Divorce allowed Adultery strictly prohibited Leisure and Entertainment The Gulf between Upper and Lower Classes On the Fringes of Civilization Late Neolithic Europe The Impact of the Indo-Europeans Megaliths Major Nomadic Movements, c. 2000 B.C.E. The Hittite Empire (c. 1600 – 1190 B.C.E.) The Impact of the Indo-Europeans Suppiluliumas I (c. 1370 – 1330 B.C.E.) The Use of Iron Decline: Internal Strife; the Sea Peoples; the Gasga Discussion Questions What were some of the key characteristics that separated homo sapiens sapiens from other early hominids? What were the advancements created during the Neolithic Revolution? Why is Mesopotamia called the Cradle of Civilization? What does the Code of Hammurabi tell us about equality in the Mesopotamian society? What role did the Nile River play in the development of Egyptian civilization? Why was Egyptian civilization so interested in death and dying? What were the contributions and achievements of the people on the fringes of civilization?