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Transcript
Invertebrates
The animal kingdom has a wide diversity of
living things. It is common to groups
animals into two categories: animals
without backbones, called invertebrates,
and animals with backbones, called
vertebrates.
Invertebrates
Worms
Sponges
Arthropods
Mollusks
Invertebrates with Soft BodiesMollusks
octopus
• They live on land and
fresh water and ocean
water.
• They make shells
from minerals in the
water
snail
squid
Mollusks
• Have shells in one stage of their life
• Have gills
• Not all mollusks have shells (e.g., octopuses, squid, and
slugs)
• Their gut is equipped with jaws, tongue like structure
with teeth
• Nerves ring around the gut
• The heart is located at the back end of the body
• Must stay moist in order to survive
• Muscular foot to move, dig, and hang on
• Examples of mollusks: snails, clams, tusk shells, chitons,
limpets, octopuses, squid, and slugs
Snail
Clams
Chiton
Octopus
Squid
Slugs
Worms
• They can grow back
parts if they lose
parts.
• Some worms can
grow to 30 METERS
long
• An earthworm has
hairs on it to help it
go through the dirt!!!
Flatworm
Roundworms
Segmented
Worms
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Elongated body
No arms, legs, or eyes
Internal body parts are in segments
Fluid filled body cavity provides support and flexibility
The gut is a straight tube
Simple nervous system
Poor sensory organs
Soft body parts without shell
There are four main groups of worms: (1) flatworms, or
Platyhelminthes; (2) ribbon worms, or Nemertea; (3)
roundworms, or Nematoda; and (4) segmented worms,
or Annelida.
Flatworms
Ribbon Worms
Madagascar Tiny Worm
Round worms
Annelida (segmented)
Sponges
• No mouth, stomachs,
or other organs
• Most live in oceans
• Cannot move
• They stink a lot
Sponges
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Simplest form of multi-cellular animals
Bottom-dwelling creature with attaches itself to something solid
Don’t have mouths
It exists by pumping water through its body. It gets food and
oxygen this way.
Soft spongy tissue
Give birth to live larva
Skeleton is on the outside
There are two types of sponges: Encrusting sponges are similar to
moss because they tend to cover the surfaces of rocks. Free-standing
sponges have lots of inner volume compared with their surface area.
Sometimes, they grow into strange shapes and gigantic sizes.
Encrusting sponges
Free-Standing Sponge
Invertebrates with Stinging Cells
jellyfish
• They have tentacles
• They have a mouth
• They live on the
ocean floor
• They shoot poisonous
darts
coral
Sea anemone
Arthropods
There are 4 groups
Arthropods
Crustaceans
Arachnids
Insects
Chilopods
• Crustacean
• Any of a large class of mostly water-dwelling arthropods (as lobsters,
shrimps, crabs, wood lice, water fleas, and barnacles) having an
exoskeleton.
• Arachnid
• Any of a class of arthropods including the spiders, scorpions, mites, and
ticks and having a segmented body divided into two regions of which
the front part bears four pairs of legs but no antennae.
• Chilopod
• Any of a group of arthropods that includes the centipedes and
millipedes.
• Insect
• Any of a class of arthropods (as butterflies, true bugs, two-winged flies,
bees, and grasshoppers) with the body clearly divided into a head,
thorax, and abdomen, with three pairs of jointed legs, and usually with
one or two pairs of wings
Arthropod – Characteristics
• They have keen sense organs
• They have exoskeletons.
• They have two or more segments
(parts)
Crustaceans
• They have five pairs
of legs
• They live near or on
the ocean floor
• Live on land and
water
• They have antennae
Crustacean
• Any of a large class of mostly waterdwelling arthropods (as lobsters, shrimps,
crabs, wood lice, water fleas, and
barnacles) having an exoskeleton.
Arachnids
• Spiders mites and
ticks.
• 4 pairs of legs
• Most live on land.
• Some live in fresh
water
• They are called
parasites.
Arachnid
• Any of a class of arthropods including the
spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks and
having a segmented body divided into
two regions of which the front part bears
four pairs of legs but no antennae.
Insects
• Largest group of
arthropods
• 3 pairs of legs
• 3 main body part
sections
• 2 pairs of eyes
• Have mouths
• Insect
• Any of a class of arthropods (as
butterflies, true bugs, two-winged flies,
bees, and grasshoppers) with the body
clearly divided into a head, thorax, and
abdomen, with three pairs of jointed legs,
and usually with one or two pairs of
wings
• Chilopod
• Any of a group of arthropods that
includes the centipedes and millipedes.
Millipedes & Centipedes
• Many body segments
• Live under rocks & dark
places
• Really have less than 100
legs
• Protects itself by curling
up
• Millipedes have 4 legs on
each segment
• Centipedes have 2 legs
on each segment
millipede
centipede
Classifying Arthropods
• Off all the invertebrate groups, arthropods
contain the greatest diversity of animals.
Arthropods include lobsters, millipedes,
centipedes, spiders, crabs, scorpions, shrimp,
and insects. Arthropods are found in more
habitats in the world than any other animal
group. Their huge variety of adaptations is what
has made them so successful in different
habitats. Adaptations are special features that
help living things survive in different habitats.
Arthropod Adaptations:
• Hard outer body covering called an
exoskeleton (for example, a beetle)
• Specialized mouth parts (for example
the proboscis of a mosquito that sucks
its victims blood)
• Jointed legs (for example, a spider’s legs)
• Compound eyes (for example the eyes of a
fly)
• Segmented body (for example, a
centipede)
• Although spiders and insects are classified as
arthropods, they belong to different subgroups
of arthropods. People often confuse spiders with
insects. Insects have three main body parts: a
head, a thorax and an abdomen. Insects also
have six legs and up to four wings which come
out of the thorax. But spiders have two body
parts – a joined head and thorax, and an
abdomen – and eight legs.
Jointed head
and thorax
abdomen
Quiz next week on the characteristics of
Invertebrates. More specifically, please study:
• The characteristics of worms, sponges,
molluscs, chilopods, crustaceans, arachnids,
insects and arthropods.