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Transcript
Section Review 6.1
Part A Completion
1. properties
2. groups
3. periods or rows
4. atomic number
5. group
6. Metals
7. gases
8. metalloids
9. less
10. more
Part B True-False
10. NT 12. AT
11. NT 13. NT
Part C Matching
14. b 16. a 18. d
15. e 17. c
Part D Questions and Problems
19. nitrogen and phosphorus are nonmetals;
arsenic and antimony are metalloids;
bismuth is a metal.
20. good conductors of heat and electric
current; high luster; ductile; malleable;
solids at room temperature
21. fluorine, bromine, iodine
Section Review 6.2
Part A Completion
1. names
2. atoms
3. alkali metals
4. alkaline earth metals
5. representative elements
6. halogens
7. noble gases
8. transition metals
9. inner transition metals
10. p
11. not filled
Part B True-False
12. ST 14. NT
13. NT 15. AT
Part C Matching
16. f 19. d 21. c
17. e 20. b 22. a
18. g
Part D Questions and Problems
23. Na, 3s1; Mg, 3s2; Al, 3s23p1; Si, 3s23p2;
P, 3s23p3; S, 3s23p4; Cl, 3s23p5; Ar, 3s23p6
24. Oxygen: nonmetal, gas;
Sulfur: nonmetal, solid;
Selenium: nonmetal, solid;
Tellurium: metalloid, solid;
Polonium: metal, solid
Section Review 6.3
Part A Completion
1. decrease 6. increases
2. increases 7. electrons
3. energy levels 8. smaller
4. charge 9. electronegativity
5. ionization 10. increases
Part B True-False
11. ST 13. AT
12. AT 14. NT
Part C Matching
15. d 17. f 19. e
16. c 18. a 20. b
Part D Questions and Problems
21. a. Al d. Na
b. S e. O
c. Br
22. a. gallium c. chlorine
b. oxygen d. bromine
Practice Problems
Section 6.1
1. c
2. a. nonmetal d. nonmetal
b. metalloid e. metal
c. metal
3. a
4. Li, Na, Rb, Cs, Fr
5. The three classes are as follows.
1) The metals: good conductors of heat and
electric current; high luster when clean;
malleable; ductile.
2) The nonmetals: poor conductors of heat
and electric current; nonlustrous. Solid
metals tend to be brittle.
3) The metalloids: elements that have
properties similar to those of metals and
nonmetals depending on the conditions.
Section 6.2
1. Silicon is in the third period. Its first and
second energy levels are full (1s22s22p6). It is
the fourth element in the period; so its
electron configuration must end in 3s23p2.
The complete configuration is 1s22s22p63s23p2.
2. Iodine is located in period 5. Its first four
energy levels are full. It is Group 4A; so its
electron configuration must end in 5s25p5.
The complete configuration is
1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p5.
3. The configuration s2p3 indicates 5 electrons
in the highest occupied energy level, which is
a feature of Group 5A.
4. a. Elements in Group 5A have 5 electrons in
their highest occupied energy level. The
third period element in Group 5A is
phosphorus.
b. 4s24p5 represents the Group 7A element in
period 4; this element is bromine.
c. selenium.
5. a. The period 2 element with six electrons is
oxygen.
b. The period 4 element with 2 electrons is
calcium.
c. The element in period 4 with 2 electrons
in the 4s sublevel and 10 electrons in the
3d sublevel is zinc.
6. Both Ne and Ar have a completely filled
highest occupied energy level. They are in
Group 8A, which is also known as the noble
gases.
Ne: 1s22s22p6
Ar: 1s22s22p63s23p6
7. The chemical and physical properties are
largely determined by their electron
configurations. Lithium in Group 1A has only
1 electron in its highest occupied energy
level. Sulfur in Group 6A has 6 electrons in its
highest occupied energy level.
8. Transition metals are elements whose highest
occupied s sublevel and a nearby d sublevel
contain electrons. The electron configurations
for Ag and Fe are:
Ag 1s22s22p63s23p64s24p64d105s1
Fe 1s22s22p63s23p63d64s2
Section 6.3
1. A magnesium atom is smaller than a sodium
atom because the shielding effect is constant
for elements in the same period, but the
nuclear charge is greater in magnesium. So
the electrons are drawn closer to the nucleus.
Magnesium and calcium have the same
number of electrons in their highest
occupied energy level. A magnesium atom is
smaller than a calcium atom because there
are fewer occupied energy levels.
2. Astatine is in period 6. Tellurium is in period 5.
Astatine is in Group 7A; tellurium is in Group
6A. Although atomic size decreases across a
period, the additional occupied energy level
in astatine significantly increases the size of
the astatine atom as compared to the
tellurium atom. The prediction is that atoms
of astatine are larger than atoms of tellurium.
3. A chlorine atom is smaller than a magnesium
atom because atomic size decreases from left
to right across a period. When a magnesium
atom reacts, it loses electrons from its highest
occupied energy level. A magnesium ion has
filled first and second levels. When chlorine
reacts, it gains an electron in its highest
occupied energy level. An ion with three
occupied energy levels is larger than an ion
with two occupied energy levels.
4. Across a period from left to right the principal
energy level remains the same, but the
nuclear charge increases. The increasing
nuclear charge pulls the electrons closer to
the nucleus, resulting in a smaller atomic
radius. The trend is less pronounced as the
number of electrons increases because the
inner electrons shield the electrons in the
highest occupied energy level. Atomic size
increases as you move down a period because
the electrons are added to higher principal
energy levels. This enlarging effect is greater
than the shrinking effect caused by
increasing nuclear charge.
5. When a sulfur atom reacts to form an ion it
adds two electrons while chlorine adds one
electron. Sulfide and chloride ions have the
same number of electrons. Because the
chloride ion has the greater nuclear charge, it
will be smaller than the sulfide ion.
6. Sodium’s first ionization energy is higher than
that of potassium because ionization energy
tends to decrease from top to bottom within
a group.
7. Beryllium’s first ionization energy is greater
because first ionization energy tends to
increase from left to right across a period.
8. Barium is less electronegative than struntium
because electronegativity values tend to
decrease from top to bottom within a group.
9. Because magnesium has a relatively low first
and second ionization energy, the removal of
two electrons from magnesium is likely. The
relatively high third ionization energy
indicates the difficulty of removing a third
electron from the filled second energy level.
Magnesium normally forms an ion with a 2_
charge.
10. Because electronegativity decreases from top
to bottom within a group, sulfur is less
electronegative than oxygen. Because
electronegativity increases from left to right
across a period, fluorine is more
electronegative than oxygen. The correct
order for increasing electronegativity is then
sulfur _ oxygen _ fluorine.
Interpreting Graphics 6
1. 42 5. 2617 _C
2. table A 6. table B
3. atomic weight 7. 4
4. 0.53 g/cm3
8. physical state at room temperature; general
class, e.g. transition metal; whether an
element is not found in nature
9. In the periodic table elements with similar
chemical and physical properties are
grouped together in vertical columns. This
organization helps scientists predict and
explain similarities and differences in the
properties of elements based on their
underlying atomic structure. Listing the
elements, in alphabetical order, makes it
possible to quickly find information about
the properties of a particular element without
having to know the location of the element in
the periodic table.
10. a. Li: Group 1A (or Group 1), period 2
Mo: Group 6B (or Group 6), period 5
b. No, because they are not located in the
same group or family.
c. Lithium, Li, is an alkali metal.
Molybdenum, Mo, is a transition metal.
d. Answers may include sodium, potassium,
rubidium, cesium, and francium.
11. Check students’ work. Their keys need to
include the color, mp, and bp, of the element
(and the state if the square is not color
coded for style).