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Transcript
Chapter 11
Mediterranean Society:
The Roman Phase
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
1
Establishment of Rome

Legend of Romulus and Remus



Rome founded by Romulus 753 B.C.E.
Indo-European migrants ca. 2000 B.C.E.
Bronze ca. 1800 B.C.E.; iron ca. 900 B.C.E.
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
2
The Etruscans


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Originally from Anatolia
Colonized Po River valley to Naples region
Society declines late sixth century B.C.E.


Greek maritime attacks
Celtic invasions from north
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
3
The Kingdom of Rome

Monarchy through seventh to sixth century B.C.E.


Streets, temples, public buildings
Major center of trade routes
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
4
Establishment of the Republic


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509 B.C.E., Romans overthrow last Etruscan king
Roman forum built
Republican constitution
Executive: two consuls
Senate
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
5
Social Conflict

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Patricians (aristocrats)
Plebeians (commoners)
Major class conflict, fifth century B.C.E.
Plebeians allowed to elect tribunes for
representation
Rights expanded through third century B.C.E.
Constitution allowed for dictators to be appointed
in times of crisis
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
6
Expansion of the Republic


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Dominated Etruscans
Took over iron industry fifth to fourth century
B.C.E.
Expansion via military threat and incentives



Tax exemptions
Trade privileges
Citizenship
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
7
The Punic Wars



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Conflict with Carthage, 264-146 B.C.E.
Three major wars over Sicilian grain supply
Later conflict with declining Hellenistic empires
Rome dominates Mediterranean by middle of
second century B.C.E.
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
8
Imperial Expansion and Domestic
Problems

Land distribution



Perennial problem
Development of large plantations, latifundia
Unfair competition for smaller landholders
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
9
Expansion of the Roman Republic to
146 B.C.E.
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
10
The Gracchi Brothers



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Tiberius and Gaius
Attempted to limit land holdings of aristocrats
Tiberius assassinated; Gaius executed
Development of private armies made up of
landless peasants


Gaius Marius (with reformers)
Lucius Cornelius Sulla (with aristocrats)
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
11
Civil War



87 B.C.E., Gaius Marius takes Rome
Lucius Cornelius Sulla drives Marius out,
83 B.C.E.
Reign of terror follows
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
12
Julius Caesar


Nephew of Marius
Escapes Sulla’s terror


Rises in popularity

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Relatively young, well-timed trip abroad
Public spectacles, victories in Gaul
Attacks Rome 49 B.C.E.
Names self dictator for life in 46 B.C.E.
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
13
Caesar’s Policies

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Centralized military, governance under personal
control
Redistribution of land to war veterans, other allies
Major building projects reduce urban
unemployment
Extended citizenship to provinces
Aristocrats threatened, assassinate Caesar in
44 B.C.E.
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
14
Augustus


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Civil conflict follows death of Caesar
Power belongs to Octavian
Octavian defeats Mark Antony and Cleopatra
Takes title of Augustus, 27 B.C.E.
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
15
Augustus’s Administration


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Monarchy disguised as a republic
Increasing centralization of political, military
power
Stabilized empire
Death in 14 C.E.
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
16
Expansion and Integration of Empire

Roman occupation of increasingly remote areas

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Gaul, Germany, Britain, Spain
Coordination of crop production, transport of
natural resources
Developed infrastructure, cities emerge
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
17
The Roman Empire, ca. 117 C.E.
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
18
Pax Romana: “Roman Peace”

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
27-250 C.E.
Facilitated trade, communication
Roadwork

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Curbs
Drainage
Flat paving stones
Milestones
Postal service
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
19
Roman Law


Twelve Tables, 449 B.C.E.
Adapted to diverse populations under Roman rule


Innocent until proven guilty
Right to challenge accusers in court
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
20
Commercial Agriculture and Trade

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Latifundia: production for export
Regional specialization increases
Integration of empire-wide economy
“Sailing itinerary of the Red Sea”
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
21
The City of Rome

Cash flow


Massive construction projects


Taxes, tribute, spoils, commerce
Statuary, monumental architecture, aqueducts
Technology: concrete
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
22
Roman Attractions



Imported goods
Underground sewage
Circus Maximus



250,000 spectators
Colosseum
Gladiatorial games
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
23
Family and Society

Paterfamilias: “father of the family”


Right to arrange marriages, sell children into slavery
Women not allowed to inherit property

Enforcement inconsistent
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
24
Wealth and Social Change



Newly rich challenge aristocracy
Yet poor class increasing in size
Distraction: “bread and circuses”
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
25
Slavery

Second century C.E.: estimated at one-third of
empire’s population

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Customary manumission at age 30
Agricultural work, quarries, mines
Chain labor
Revolt under Spartacus, 73 B.C.E.
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
26
Roman Deities
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Polytheistic
Major gods
Tutelary deities
Absorption of gods from other cultures
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
27
Cicero and Stoicism

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Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 B.C.E.)
Major orator, writer
Influenced by Greek thought
Proponent of Stoicism
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
28
Mithraism


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From Zoroastrian myth: god of sun, light
Roman version emphasizes strength, courage,
discipline
Women not admitted into cult
Appealed to military
Cult of Isis also popular
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
29
Judaism in Early Rome


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Jewish monotheism at odds with most ancient
cultures
Refusal to recognize state gods
Repeated Jewish rebellions
Romans finally crush Jewish self-governance in
Jewish War (66-70 C.E.)
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
30
Synagogue at Capernaum
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
31
The Essenes



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Messianic Jewish cult
Baptism
Ascetic lifestyle
Dead Sea scrolls
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
32
Jesus of Nazareth
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

Jewish teacher
Moral code, reputation for miracle-working
Romans fear instigation of rebellion, crucify Jesus
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
33
Jesus’ Early Followers



Belief in Jesus’ resurrection, divine nature
Title Christ: “anointed one”
Teachings recorded in New Testament
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
34
Paul of Tarsus



Extends teachings far beyond Jewish circles
Traveled widely throughout the Roman empire
Missionary activity
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
35
Early Christian Communities


Local leaders: bishops
Regional variation in doctrine and ritual



Nature of resurrection
Role of women
Gradual acceptance of core texts
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
36
Growth of Early Christianity


Roman persecution
Yet dramatic expansion of Christianity

Especially with dispossessed, disenfranchised classes


Urban poor
Women
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
37