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Transcript
Ancient Egypt
(The Old Kingdom)
By: Sundos Garwan & Bayan Alqhatani.
Agenda
❖
The Pyramids
❖
The Great Sphinx
❖
Mummification
❖
Culture
❖
Agriculture
❖
Government
The Old Kingdom
(c. 2686-2181 B.C.)
❖
The first capital of Ancient
Egypt in the Old Kingdom was
Memphis.
❖
The capital
Heliopolis
moved
later
to
Age of the Pyramid Builders
Age of the Pyramid Builders
(c. 2686-2181 B.C.)
❖
The Old Kingdom began with the
third dynasty of pharaohs.
❖
King Djoser asked Imhotep, an
architect, to design a funerary
monument for him.
❖
The result was the world's first
major stone building, the StepPyramid at Saqqara, near
Memphis.
The Step Pyramid
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nRK6DTpX5Ts&feature=r
elated
Why did Egyptians build the Pyramids?
The reasons are:
•
Egyptians believed in the afterlife.
•
Egyptians buried the dead in the desert, but animals began
digging up the bodies.
•
To protect and honor pharaohs after their death.
Khufu
• He was the pharaoh of the fourth dynasty.
•In
his twenties, Khufu came to the throne
and reigned for about 23 years(2589-2566
BC).
•The Great Pyramid of Khufu in Giza was
built for him.
•After he died, two of his descendants built
two more pyramids.
Statue of Khufu in the Cairo Museum
Great Pyramid of Khufu
❖ The Great Pyramid of Khufu is the
biggest of all the Pyramids of Giza.
❖ Consisting of about 2.3 million
limestone bricks
❖
It is 481 ft high(146.5 m) and 756 ft
(230.4 m) long on each side.
❖ The pyramid was constructed from
2560-2540 BC in Necropolis.
❖ The tallest man made structure in the
world for 3,800 years.
Inside the Pyramid of Khufu
Inside the chamber there’s
a granite sarcophagus,
along with two shafts. The
shafts were used to ascend
the king’s spirit to the
heavens.
The Queen’s Chamber
have shafts, but
one of the shafts were
blocked by limestone
doors. The National
Geographic Society drilled
a hole through the doors
using a robot, finding only a
bigger door behind it.
The Ascending Passage
is 39.3 m(129 ft) long, as
wide and high as the
Descending Passage. The
Ascending Passage is
closed by three huge blocks
of granite in the lower end,
each about 1.5 m (4.9 ft) tall.
Access to most parts
of the Descending
Passage is forbidden.
Khufu’s Family Tree
Father
Mother
Khufu
Queen Hetepheres
King Sneferu
Daughter
Nefertiabet
Son
Djedefra: Successor
Daughter
Son
Khafra: Builder of one of
the Pyramids
Son
Hetepheres II
Kawab: Eldest son
The Great Pyramid
http://www.history.com/topics/ancientegypt/videos#the-great-pyramidsdeconstructed
The Pyramid of Khafra
❖
Is also known as the centre pyramid.
❖
Khafra built his pyramid next to his
father’s.
❖
It appear taller than the Great
pyramid because it was placed on a
foundation of bedrock that was about
33 feet higher than that of his father.
❖
Built around 2558-2532 B.C.
The Pyramid of Menkaura
•
It is the smallest of the three pyramids.
•
It was built by Menkaura the son of Khafra.
•
He built the pyramid to show the people of Egypt that
“Menkaura Is Divine”.
Inside Menkaura’s Pyramid
•
There is a decorated chamber with carved stone panels and
scented decorations.
•
Inside Menkaura’s burial chamber there is a lidless basalt
sarcophagus.
•
Inside of the sarcophagus there is a wooden mummified
coffin. It has his name engraved on it.
The Pyramid Complex
The Great Sphinx
•
The Great Sphinx is 66 ft high, 239 ft
long
•
It has a man’s face and a lion’s body
•
Symbolizes strength and wisdom.
•
It was created to protect the Great
Pyramids of Giza.
The Great Sphinx
❖
In between the paws of the
Sphinx is a stela, now
called the "Dream Stela".
Mummification
http://www.history.com/videos/how-to-make-a-mummy
Culture of the Old Kingdom
•
During the Old Kingdom time, Egyptians created a culture,
which was to endure for 2,500 years.
•
Egypt was a powerful civilization.
Religion
❖
Egyptians did not question the beliefs, which had been handed down
to them.
❖
The religion of Ancient Egypt was a polytheistic
❖
❖ One of the very strong traditions was that of Divine Kingship.
❖
❖ Egypt considered religion very important to them.
❖
❖ They believed that Pharaoh and the priests were powerful.
❖
❖ They depend on the pharaoh and the priests
Art
Egyptian Sculptors created the earliest figures of individuals and the
first life size statues in copper, wood, and stone.
They achieved the art of carving complicated decoration.
They observed enthusiastic observations of the natural world.
They painted and carved on the walls of temples and tombs.
Their aim in the Old Kingdom was developing a connection with the
Egyptian concept of kingship and religion.
The beauty that the Egyptian craftsman strove is to provide a handsome dwelling place for
the spirit, and an attractive focus for admiration and offerings.
All representations were drawn to a strict canon
The craftsmen who made the statues and wall decorations worked in teams, under the
direction of a master.
Ancient Egypt art communicated people who don’t know how to read.
It was used for decorations and for the future to see.
People painted and sculptured about their life, beliefs and their history.
Ancient Egypt was highly known for their paintings and sculptures in their tombs and on the
monumental stones along the Nile.
Agriculture
❖
The Nile River’s once a year flood
was the life-blood of Egypt or the
source of life in Egypt.
❖
The king was the most important
figure in Egypt who performed the
ceremonies to keep the Nile
flooding, not too high and not too
low.
❖
The flood of the Nile was
important to the survival of the
people of Egypt.
Agriculture
•
Egypt had a successful agriculture.
•
The reason why the Nile River floods
every year is because of the rainfall in
Central Africa and melting snow in the
Ethiopian highlands.
•
The Nile water made farming and food
production available in Egypt.
Marshlands
❖
Egypt's marshlands
provided Egypt with plants
❖
Cows had a special place in
Old Kingdom religiously
and practically.
Language
•
Ancient Egyptians language was an Afro-Asiatic language,
which is closely related to the Berber, Semitic, and Somali
languages.
•
Ancient Egyptians used Hieroglyphics for writing,
•
Hieroglyphics were used to decorate temples and walls.
Hieroglyphs
A modern type of hieroglyphic writings would be a rebus.
Hieroglyphic writing is like a picture puzzle.
Summary for the Culture of the Old Kingdom
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tSKBOilYBiY&feature=rela
ted
Activity
❖
Crack the Code
***************
Crack the Code
Here is a hieroglyph alphabet to guide you
**************
Government
•
During the Old Kingdom, Ancient Egypt was ruled by a strong government
for 500 years until priests and other government officials demanded more
power.
•
The pharaohs held absolute power and provided a stable central government;
•
The kingdom faced no serious threats from abroad.
•
Over the course of the fifth and sixth dynasties, the king's wealth was steadily
depleted, partially due to the huge expense of pyramid-building.
Thank you !