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Ancient Egypt (The Old Kingdom) By: Sundos Garwan & Bayan Alqhatani. Agenda ❖ The Pyramids ❖ The Great Sphinx ❖ Mummification ❖ Culture ❖ Agriculture ❖ Government The Old Kingdom (c. 2686-2181 B.C.) ❖ The first capital of Ancient Egypt in the Old Kingdom was Memphis. ❖ The capital Heliopolis moved later to Age of the Pyramid Builders Age of the Pyramid Builders (c. 2686-2181 B.C.) ❖ The Old Kingdom began with the third dynasty of pharaohs. ❖ King Djoser asked Imhotep, an architect, to design a funerary monument for him. ❖ The result was the world's first major stone building, the StepPyramid at Saqqara, near Memphis. The Step Pyramid http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nRK6DTpX5Ts&feature=r elated Why did Egyptians build the Pyramids? The reasons are: • Egyptians believed in the afterlife. • Egyptians buried the dead in the desert, but animals began digging up the bodies. • To protect and honor pharaohs after their death. Khufu • He was the pharaoh of the fourth dynasty. •In his twenties, Khufu came to the throne and reigned for about 23 years(2589-2566 BC). •The Great Pyramid of Khufu in Giza was built for him. •After he died, two of his descendants built two more pyramids. Statue of Khufu in the Cairo Museum Great Pyramid of Khufu ❖ The Great Pyramid of Khufu is the biggest of all the Pyramids of Giza. ❖ Consisting of about 2.3 million limestone bricks ❖ It is 481 ft high(146.5 m) and 756 ft (230.4 m) long on each side. ❖ The pyramid was constructed from 2560-2540 BC in Necropolis. ❖ The tallest man made structure in the world for 3,800 years. Inside the Pyramid of Khufu Inside the chamber there’s a granite sarcophagus, along with two shafts. The shafts were used to ascend the king’s spirit to the heavens. The Queen’s Chamber have shafts, but one of the shafts were blocked by limestone doors. The National Geographic Society drilled a hole through the doors using a robot, finding only a bigger door behind it. The Ascending Passage is 39.3 m(129 ft) long, as wide and high as the Descending Passage. The Ascending Passage is closed by three huge blocks of granite in the lower end, each about 1.5 m (4.9 ft) tall. Access to most parts of the Descending Passage is forbidden. Khufu’s Family Tree Father Mother Khufu Queen Hetepheres King Sneferu Daughter Nefertiabet Son Djedefra: Successor Daughter Son Khafra: Builder of one of the Pyramids Son Hetepheres II Kawab: Eldest son The Great Pyramid http://www.history.com/topics/ancientegypt/videos#the-great-pyramidsdeconstructed The Pyramid of Khafra ❖ Is also known as the centre pyramid. ❖ Khafra built his pyramid next to his father’s. ❖ It appear taller than the Great pyramid because it was placed on a foundation of bedrock that was about 33 feet higher than that of his father. ❖ Built around 2558-2532 B.C. The Pyramid of Menkaura • It is the smallest of the three pyramids. • It was built by Menkaura the son of Khafra. • He built the pyramid to show the people of Egypt that “Menkaura Is Divine”. Inside Menkaura’s Pyramid • There is a decorated chamber with carved stone panels and scented decorations. • Inside Menkaura’s burial chamber there is a lidless basalt sarcophagus. • Inside of the sarcophagus there is a wooden mummified coffin. It has his name engraved on it. The Pyramid Complex The Great Sphinx • The Great Sphinx is 66 ft high, 239 ft long • It has a man’s face and a lion’s body • Symbolizes strength and wisdom. • It was created to protect the Great Pyramids of Giza. The Great Sphinx ❖ In between the paws of the Sphinx is a stela, now called the "Dream Stela". Mummification http://www.history.com/videos/how-to-make-a-mummy Culture of the Old Kingdom • During the Old Kingdom time, Egyptians created a culture, which was to endure for 2,500 years. • Egypt was a powerful civilization. Religion ❖ Egyptians did not question the beliefs, which had been handed down to them. ❖ The religion of Ancient Egypt was a polytheistic ❖ ❖ One of the very strong traditions was that of Divine Kingship. ❖ ❖ Egypt considered religion very important to them. ❖ ❖ They believed that Pharaoh and the priests were powerful. ❖ ❖ They depend on the pharaoh and the priests Art Egyptian Sculptors created the earliest figures of individuals and the first life size statues in copper, wood, and stone. They achieved the art of carving complicated decoration. They observed enthusiastic observations of the natural world. They painted and carved on the walls of temples and tombs. Their aim in the Old Kingdom was developing a connection with the Egyptian concept of kingship and religion. The beauty that the Egyptian craftsman strove is to provide a handsome dwelling place for the spirit, and an attractive focus for admiration and offerings. All representations were drawn to a strict canon The craftsmen who made the statues and wall decorations worked in teams, under the direction of a master. Ancient Egypt art communicated people who don’t know how to read. It was used for decorations and for the future to see. People painted and sculptured about their life, beliefs and their history. Ancient Egypt was highly known for their paintings and sculptures in their tombs and on the monumental stones along the Nile. Agriculture ❖ The Nile River’s once a year flood was the life-blood of Egypt or the source of life in Egypt. ❖ The king was the most important figure in Egypt who performed the ceremonies to keep the Nile flooding, not too high and not too low. ❖ The flood of the Nile was important to the survival of the people of Egypt. Agriculture • Egypt had a successful agriculture. • The reason why the Nile River floods every year is because of the rainfall in Central Africa and melting snow in the Ethiopian highlands. • The Nile water made farming and food production available in Egypt. Marshlands ❖ Egypt's marshlands provided Egypt with plants ❖ Cows had a special place in Old Kingdom religiously and practically. Language • Ancient Egyptians language was an Afro-Asiatic language, which is closely related to the Berber, Semitic, and Somali languages. • Ancient Egyptians used Hieroglyphics for writing, • Hieroglyphics were used to decorate temples and walls. Hieroglyphs A modern type of hieroglyphic writings would be a rebus. Hieroglyphic writing is like a picture puzzle. Summary for the Culture of the Old Kingdom http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tSKBOilYBiY&feature=rela ted Activity ❖ Crack the Code *************** Crack the Code Here is a hieroglyph alphabet to guide you ************** Government • During the Old Kingdom, Ancient Egypt was ruled by a strong government for 500 years until priests and other government officials demanded more power. • The pharaohs held absolute power and provided a stable central government; • The kingdom faced no serious threats from abroad. • Over the course of the fifth and sixth dynasties, the king's wealth was steadily depleted, partially due to the huge expense of pyramid-building. Thank you !