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OIE Collaborating Centre Reports
Activities in 2012
Title of Collaborating Centre: 1. Collaborating Centre for Wildlife
Surveillance and Monitoring,
Epidemiology and Management
Collaborating Centre for Research and
Diagnosis of Emerging and Existing
Pathogens of Wildlife (NWHC)
[Referred to collectively as the
Collaborating Centre on Research,
Diagnosis and Surveillance of Wildlife
Address of Collaborating Centre:
1. CCWHC, WCVM, University of
Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive,
Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4 Canada
2. National Wildlife Health Center
US Geological Survey
US Department of Interior
6006 Schroeder Road
Madison, Wisconsin, WI 53711 USA
1. (+1) 306 966 7281 / (+1) 306 966
2. (+1) 608 270 2401 / (+1) 608 270
e-mail address:
1. [email protected]
2. [email protected]
Name of Director of Institute 1. Frederick (Ted) A. Leighton
(Responsible Official): 2. Jonathan M. Sleeman
OIE Contact Point Frederick (Ted) A. Leighton
Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2012
Research, Diagnosis and Surveillance of Wildlife Pathogens
Summary of activities specifically related to the mandate of
OIE Collaborating Centres
Activities as a centre of research, expertise, standardisation and dissemination of
techniques within the remit of the mandate given by the OIE
Developed a new real-time PCR with enhanced sensitivity and specificity for detecting
Geomyces destructans (white-nose syndrome) on bats and in environmental samples, and
provided early access of procedures and associated qualification data to CCWHC staff.
Collaborated with the Snaefellsnes Research Centre, University of
Iceland, Stykkishólmur, Iceland and the Reykjanes Environmental Research Institute,
Sandgerdi, Iceland, to investigate the hypothesis that migratory avian species in the North
Atlantic region could be involved in the transmission of avian influenza viruses between the
Eastern and Western Hemispheres.
Canada’s Response to White Nose Syndrome (WNS) in Bats: Workshop for Canadian and
US scientists to establish action plans for response and management to WNS. October 16-18
2012, Ottawa.
Development and assessment of animal welfare standards in the harvest of wild animals.
Collaboration with Fisheries and Oceans Canada and the Government of Newfoundland and
Wildlife Disease Surveillance in Japan – visit by Dr Mutsuyo Kadohira, Farm Animal
Disease Control Section, Field Center of Animal Science and Agriculture, Obihiro
University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine to learn structure and function of the
CCWHC national wildlife disease surveillance program.
Provision of wildlife health data management technology and services to wildlife health
centres in The Netherlands (1) and the United States (2).
Proposal or development of any procedure that will facilitate harmonisation of international
regulations applicable to the surveillance and control of animal diseases, food safety or
animal welfare
Maintenance of a network with other OIE Collaborating Centres designated for the same
specialty, and
Both Collaborating Centres are participating in establishing a structure and communication
plan between Canada and the United States for harmonization of activities to management
of White Nose Syndrome of bats.
Both Centres are maintaining their collaborative relationship as a combined OIE
Collaborating Centre for wildlife health in the Americans Region. Some key features of this
collaboration in 2012 were
o Co-instruction of the Workshop for OIE National Focal Points on Wildlife:
Surveillance and International Reporting of Diseases in Wildlife in Bulgaria and Sri
o Collaborations on research on avian influenza and white nose syndrome of bats.
Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2012
Research, Diagnosis and Surveillance of Wildlife Pathogens
Collaboration on development of a national wildlife health network in the United
Drs. Leighton and Sleeman are in regular contact regarding wildlife diseases issues
germane to the USA and Canada as well as to discuss operation of the Collaborating
Centre Consortium.
Should the need arise, maintenance of a network with Collaborating Centres in other
Dr. Jonathan Sleeman has been in regular contact with the USDA APHIS Veterinary
Services Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health.
Placement of expert consultants at the disposal of the OIE
Dr. Ted Leighton, Executive Director of the CCWHC, is a member of the Working Group
on Wildlife Diseases of the OIE.
Provision of scientific and technical training, within the remit of the mandate given by the
OIE, to personnel from OIE Member Countries
Dr. Daniel Walsh represented the USGS National Wildlife Health Center at the Workshop
for OIE National Focal Points on Wildlife: Surveillance and International Reporting of
Diseases in Wildlife for the European region held in Prevetz, Bulgaria during January 2012.
Dr. Walsh served as one of the instructors for the workshop whose purpose was to increase
national capacity to conduct surveillance and reporting of wildlife diseases. The workshop
was well attended with over 50 countries represented.
Dr. Jonathan Sleeman represented the USGS National Wildlife Health Center at the
Workshop for OIE National Focal Points on Wildlife: Surveillance and International
Reporting of Diseases in Wildlife for the Asia region held in Colombo, Sri Lanka during
April, 2012. Dr. Walsh served as one of the instructors for the workshop whose purpose
was to increase national capacity to conduct surveillance and reporting of wildlife diseases.
The workshop was well attended with over 50 countries represented.
Dr. Thierry Work lectured on wildlife disease investigation techniques at Universidad de
San Luis Potosi, Mexico during February 2012.
Dr. Ted Leighton organized and participated in the teaching of the Workshop for OIE
National Focal Points on Wildlife: Surveillance and International Reporting of Diseases in
Wildlife in Bulgaria in January and in Sri Lanka in April.
Dr Asha Perera served as an instructor for the Workshop for OIE National Focal Points on
Wildlife: Surveillance and International Reporting of Diseases in Wildlife in Sri Lanka in
April 2012.
Workshop on Capacity Development in Wildlife Health in Low and Middle Income
Countries (Lyon, France, 23 July 2012). Designed, organized and managed by Drs. Ted
Leighton and Sophie Valeix for the Wildlife Disease Association.
Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2012
Research, Diagnosis and Surveillance of Wildlife Pathogens
Workshop for Wildlife Health Professionals – 2 days of continuing education with Canadian
and US participants. 21-22 February 2012. Organized and managed by the CCWHC.
Organisation of scientific meetings on behalf of the OIE
Not applicable.
Coordination of scientific and technical studies in collaboration with other laboratories,
organisations or collaborating centres
Not applicable.
Publication and dissemination of any information within the remit of the mandate given by
the OIE that may be useful to Member Countries of the OIE
ABBOTT, RC, JE Osorio, CM BUNCK, TE ROCKE. Sylvatic Plague Vaccine: A New Tool for
Conservation of Threatened and Endangered Species? EcoHealth doi: 10.1007/s10393-012-0783-5.
Anthony, S.J., J.A. St. Leger, K. Pugliares, H.S. IP, J.M. Chan, Z.W. Carpenter, I. NavaretteMacias, M. Sanchez-Leon, J.T. Saliki, J. Pedersen, W. Karesh, P. Daszak, R. Rabadan, T. Rowles,
W.I. Lipkin. 2012. Emergence of fatal avian influenza in New England harbor seals. mBio
BLEHERT, D.S. 2012. Fungal disease and the developing story of bat white-nose syndrome. PLoS
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BODENSTEIN, B. 2012. USGS National Wildlife Health Center Mortality Report. Newsletter of
the Wildlife Disease Association, January 2012, 10-11.
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the Wildlife Disease Association, January 2012, 10-11.
BRADSBY, J, A BALLMANN, CL WHITE, B BODENSTEIN. 2011. National Wildlife Health
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J. P., Fordham, D. A., Prowse, T. A. A. and Brook, B. W. (2011), Novel coupling of individualbased epidemiological and demographic models predicts realistic dynamics of tuberculosis in alien
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DUSEK, R.J., W.M. Iko, and E.J. HOFMEISTER 2012. Prevalence and effects of West Nile virus
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Surveillance and Public Health. The Pennsylvania Academy of Science, Easton, Pennsylvania,
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Waterfowl and Wetlands during Summer 2010 in California: Are Resident Birds a Potential
Reservoir? PLoS ONE 7(2): e31471.
Hernandez, S.M., K. Keel, S. Sanchez, E. Trees, P. Gerner-Smidt, J.K. Adams, Y. Cheng, A. Ray
3rd, G. Martin, A. Presotto, M.G. Ruder, J. Brown, D.S. BLEHERT, W. Cottrell, and J.J. Maurer.
2012. The epidemiology of Salmonella enterica spp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain
associated with a songbird outbreak. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Vol 78, Issue 20.
79: 7290-7298.
SCHULER, J Winton, J SLEEMAN. Climate Change and Wildlife Health: Direct and Indirect
Effects Fact Sheet. 2010-3017, Revised 2012.
IP, HS, RJ DUSEK, DM HEISEY. 2012. The Effect of Swab Sample Choice on the Detection of
Avian Influenza in Apparently Healthy Wild Ducks. Avian Diseases 56:114-119.
Lam, TT-H, HS IP, E Ghedin, DE Wentworth, RA Halpin, TB Stockwell, DJ Spiro, RJ DUSEK, JB
Bortner, J Hoskins, BD Bales, DR Yparraguirre, EC Holmes. Migratory flyway and geographical
distance are barriers to the gene flow of influenza virus among North American birds. Ecology
Letters. (2012) 15: 24-33.
Lorch, JM, CU METEYER, MJ Behr, JG Boyles, PM Cryan, AC Hicks, AE BALLMANN, JTH
Coleman, DN Redell, DM Reeder, DS BLEHERT. 2011. Experimental infection of bats with
Geomyces destructans causes white-nose syndrome. Nature, v. 480, no. 7377, p. 376-378
Lorch, J.M., Lindner, D.L., Gargas, A., Muller, L.K., Minnis, A.M., & Blehert, D.S. (2012). A
culture-based survey of fungi in soil from bat hibernacula in the eastern United States and its
implications for detection of Geomyces destructans, the causal agent of bat white-nose syndrome.
Mycologia, 2012 12-207; Preliminary version published online: October 16, 2012.
METEYER, C. U., D. Barber, and J. N. Mandl. 2012. Pathology in euthermic bats with white-nose
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MULLER, L. K., J. M. Lorch, D. L. Lindner, M. O'Connor, A. Gargas, and D. S. BLEHERT. Bat
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Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2012
Research, Diagnosis and Surveillance of Wildlife Pathogens
Pearce, J.M., D.R. Ruthrauff, J.S. HALL. 2012. Paired serological and RRT-PCR analysis of avian
influenza prevalence in Alaskan shorebirds. J. Wildlife. Dis. 48:812-814.
WC Tucker. 2011. In vitro detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxin type E activity in
avian blood. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 77:7815-7822.
Pikula, J, H Bandouchova, L Novotny, CU METEYER, J Zukal, NR Irwin, J Zima, N Martinkova.
Histopathology Confirms White-Nose Syndrome in Bats in Europe. Journal of Wildlife Diseases.
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Reeder, D.M., Frank, C.L., Turner, G.G., METEYER, C.U., Kurta, A., Britzke, E.R., Vodzak, M.E.,
Darling, S.R., Stihler, C.W., Hicks, A.C., Jacob, R., Grieneisen, L.E., Brownlee, S.A., Muller, L.K.,
BLEHERT, D.S., 2012, Frequent Arousal from Hibernation Linked to Severity of Infection and
Mortality in Bats with White-Nose Syndrome: PLoS ONE, v. 7 no. 6
ROCKE, T. E., J. WILLIAMSON, K. R. Cobble, J. D. Busch, M. F. Antolin, and D. M. Wagner.
2012. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic
Diseases 12(12):111-116
Russell, DM, CS Goldberg, L Sprague, LP Watts, DE GREEN, KL SCHULER, and EB Rosenblum.
2011. Ranavirus outbreaks in amphibian populations of northern Idaho. Herpetological Review
SLEEMAN, J.M. and C. Gillin. 2012. Ills in the pipeline: emerging infectious diseases and wildlife.
The Wildlife Professional, Spring 2012:34-39
Smith, KM, SJ Anthony, WM Switzer, JH Epstein, T Seimon, J Hongwei, MD Sanchez, TT Huynh,
GG Galland, SE Shapiro, JM SLEEMAN, D McAloose, M Stuchin, G Amato, SO Kolokotronis, WI
Lipkin, WB Karesh, P Daszak, N Marano. Zoonotic Viruses Associated with Illegally Imported
Wildlife Products. PLoS ONE 7(1): e29505.
Verant, M.L., J.G. Boyles, W. Waldrep, Jr., G. Wibbelt, and D.S. BLEHERT. 2012. Temperaturedependent growth of Geomyces destructans, the fungus that causes FY 2012 Annual Report bat
white-nose syndrome. PLoS ONE 7: e46280. doi:10.1 FY 2012 Annual Report
WALSH, DP. 2012. Enhanced surveillance strategies for detecting and monitoring chronic wasting
disease in free-ranging cervids Open File Report Number 2012-1036. U.S. Geological Survey. 42 p.
Warnecke, L., J.M. Turner, T.K. Bollinger, J.M. Lorch, V. Misra, P.M. Cryan, G. Wibbelt, D.S.
BLEHERT, and C.K.R. Willis. 2012. Inoculation of bats with European Geomyces destructans
supports the novel pathogen hypothesis for the origin of white-nose syndrome. Proceedings of the
National Academy of Science 109: 6999-700.
Anholt RM, Stephen C, Copes R. 2012. Strategies for collaboration for the interdisciplinary field of
emerging zoonotic diseases. Zoonoses and Public Health. 59(4): 229-240
Catalano, S., Lejeune, M., Liccioli, S., Verocai, G.G., Gesy, K.M., Jenkins, E.J., Kutz, S.J.,
Fuentealba, C., Duignan, P.J., Massolo, A. 2012. Echinococcus multilocularis in urban coyotes,
Alberta, Canada (2012) Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18 (10), pp. 1625-1628.
Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2012
Research, Diagnosis and Surveillance of Wildlife Pathogens
Chapinal N, Elkin B Joly D Schumaker B, Stephen C. 2012. Agreement between the caudal fold test
and serological tests for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in bison. Preventive
Veterinary Medicine. 105:326-330
Chen, C.C., Epp, T., Jenkins, E., Waldner, C., Curry, P.S., Soos, C. 2012. Predicting weekly
variation of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) West Nile Virus Infection in a newly endemic
region, the Canadian Prairies, Journal of Medical Entomology, 49(5):1144-1153.
Daoust P-Y, M van de Bildt, D van Riel, G van Amerongen, T Bestebroer, R Vanderstichel, RAM
Fouchier, and T Kuiken. 2012. Replication of two subtypes of low-pathogenicity Avian Influenza
virus of duck and gull origins in experimentally infected Mallard ducks. Veterinary Pathology
Daoust P-Y, and C Caraguel. 2012. The Canadian harp seal hunt: observations on the effectiveness
of procedures to avoid poor animal welfare outcomes. Animal Welfare 2012, 21: 445-455.
Davidson, R., T. Romig, E. Jenkins, M. Tryland, and L. Robertson. 2012. Impact of globalization on
distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis. Trends in Parasitology 28(6): 239-247.
Ducrocq, J., Beauchamp, G., Kutz, S., Simard, M., Elkin, B., Croft, B., Taillon, J., Côté, S.D.,
Brodeur, V., Campbell, M., Cooley, D., Cuyler, C., Lair, S. 2012.Comparison of gross visual and
microscopic assessment of four anatomic sites to monitor Besnoitia tarandi in barren-ground
caribou (Rangifer tarandus)(2012) Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 48 (3), pp. 732-738.
Elmore, S.A., E.J. Jenkins, K.P. Huyvaert, L. Polley, J.J. Root, and C.G. Moore. 2012. Toxoplasma
gondii in circumpolar people and wildlife. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 12(1): 1-9.
Forde, T., Orsel, K., De Buck, J., Côté, S.D., Cuyler, C., Davison, T., Elkin, B., Kelly, A., Kienzler,
M., Popko, R., Taillon, J., Veitch, A., Kutz, S. 2012. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies
paratuberculosis in several herds of arctic caribou (Rangifer Tarandus ssp.) (2012) Journal of
Wildlife Diseases, 48 (4), pp. 918-924.
Forzán, M. J., R. V. Vanderstichel, C. T. Ogbuah, J. R, Barta, T. G. Smith. 2012. Blood collection
from the facial (maxillary)/musculo-cutaneous vein in true frogs (family Ranidae). Journal of
Wildlife Diseases, 2012, 48(1):176-180
Forde, T., Kutz, S., de Buck, J., Warren, A., Ruckstuhl, K., Pybus, M., Orsel, K. 2012. Occurrence,
diagnosis, and strain typing of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in rocky
mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) in southwestern Alberta (2012) Journal of
Wildlife Diseases, 48 (1), pp. 1-11.
Hénaux, V., Samuel, M.D., Parmley, J., and Soos, C. 2013. Estimating transmission of avian
influenza in wild birds from incomplete epizootic data. Journal of Applied Ecology, Journal of
Applied Ecology, In press.
Himsworth CG, Parsons KL, Jardine C, Patrick DM. 2012. Rats, Cities, People, and Pathogens: A
systematic review and narrative synthesis of literature regarding the epidemiology of rat-associated
zoonoses in urban centers. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases Accepted November 25, 2012.
Himsworth CG, Patrick DM, Parsons, KL, Feng A, Weese JS. 2012. Carriage of methicillinresistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius by wild Norway Rats. Emerging Infectious Diseases
19(1): 169-170.
Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2012
Research, Diagnosis and Surveillance of Wildlife Pathogens
Himsworth CG, Feng AYT, Parsons KL, Kerr T, Patrick DM. 2012. Using experiential knowledge
to understand urban rat ecology: a survey of Canadian pest control professionals. Urban Ecosystems
DOI 10.1007/s11252-012-0261-4
Himsworth CG, McInnes CJ, Coulter L, Everest D, Hill J. Characterization of a novel poxvirus in a
North American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 49(1): 173179.
Hoberg, E.P. A. Abrams, P.A. Pilitt, and E.J. Jenkins. 2012. Discovery and description of a new
trichostrongyloid species (Nematoda: Ostertagiinae), abomasal parasites in mountain goat
(Oreamnos americanus), from the western cordillera of North America. Journal of Parasitology
98(4): 817-846.
Hoberg, E.P., Abrams, A., Pilitt, P.A., Kutz, S.J. 2012. Discovery and description of the "davtiani"
morphotype for Teladorsagia boreoarcticus (Trichostrongyloidea: Ostertagiinae) abomasal parasites
in muskoxen, Ovibos moschatus, and caribou, Rangifer tarandus, from the North American Arctic:
Implications for parasite faunal diversity (2012) Journal of Parasitology, 98 (2), pp. 355-364.
Hoberg, E.P., Galbreath, K.E., Cook, J.A., Kutz, S.J., Polley, L. 2012. Northern Host-Parasite
Assemblages. History and Biogeography on the Borderlands of Episodic Climate and
Environmental Transition (2012) Advances in Parasitology, 79, pp. 1-97.
Jenkins, E.J., A.S. Peregrine, J.E. Hill, C. Somers, K. Gesy, B. Barnes, B. Gottstein, and L. Polley.
2012. Detection of a European strain of Echinococcus multilocularis in North America. Emerging
Infectious Diseases 18(6): 1010-1012. doi:10.3201/eid1806.111420
Jardine C.M., N. Janecko, M. Allan, P. Boerlin, G. Chalmers, G. Kozak, S.A. McEwen, R. J. ReidSmith. 2012. Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Raccoons (Procyon lotor)
in Southern Ontario, Canada. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 78: 3873-3879.
Jokinen CC, Koot JM, Carrillo CD, Gannon VP, Jardine CM, Mutschall SK, Topp E, Taboada EN.
2012. An enhanced technique combining pre-enrichment and passive filtration increases the
isolation efficiency of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from water and animal fecal
samples. J Microbiol Methods. 91(3):506-13.
Kutz, S.J., Ducrocq, J., Verocai, G.G., Hoar, B.M., Colwell, D.D., Beckmen, K.B., Polley, L., Elkin,
B.T., Hoberg, E.P. 2012. Parasites in Ungulates of Arctic North America and Greenland. A View of
Contemporary Diversity, Ecology, and Impact in a World Under Change (2012) Advances in
Parasitology, 79, pp. 99-252.
Larrat, S., A.D. Dallaire, S. Lair. 2012. Emaciation and larval filarioid nematode infection in boreal
owls (Aegolius funereus). Avian Pathology. 41(4), 345-349. 2012
Larrat, S., S. Locke, A.D. Dallaire, G. Fitzgerald, D.J. Marcogliese, S. Lair. 2012. Fatal
Aerosacculitis and Pneumonia Associated with the Nematode Eucoleus aerophilus in a Peregrine
Falcon (Falco peregrinus). Journal of Wildlife Disease. 48(3), 832–834. 2012.
Larrat, S., J. Marvin, Lair, S. 2012. Safety and efficacy of emamectin benzoate to treat
Anguillicoloides crassus (Kuwahara, Niimi and Itagaki) infections in American eels (Anguilla
rostrata, Lesueur). Journal of Fish Diseases. 35: 467-470. 2012.
Larrat, S., Marvin, J., Lair, S. 2012. Low sensitivity of antemortem gill biopsies for the detection of
subclinical Pseudodactylogyrus bini infestations in American eels (Anguilla rostrata). Journal of
Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 43(1): 190–192, 2012.
Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2012
Research, Diagnosis and Surveillance of Wildlife Pathogens
Lemon, M., Pack, L., Forzán M.J. 2012. Valvular Endocarditis and Septic Thrombosis Associated
with a Radial Fracture in a Red-Tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). Canadian Veterinary Journal,
2012, 53(1):79-82
Liccioli, S., Catalano, S., Kutz, S.J., Lejeune, M., Verocai, G.G., Duignan, P.J., Fuentealba, C.,
Ruckstuhl, K.E., Massolo, A. 2012. Sensitivity of double centrifugation sugar fecal flotation for
detecting intestinal helminths in coyotes (Canis latrans) (2012) Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 48 (3),
pp. 717-723.
Liccioli, S., Catalano, S., Kutz, S.J., Lejeune, M., Verocai, G.G., Duignan, P.J., Fuentealba, C.,
Hart, M., Ruckstuhl, K.E., Massolo, A. 2012. Gastrointestinal parasites of coyotes (Canis latrans) in
the metropolitan area of Calgary, Alberta, Canada (2012) Canadian Journal of Zoology, 90 (8), pp.
Mainguy, J, C, Fehlner-Gardiner, D, Slate, RJ, Rudd. 2012. Oral Rabies Vaccination in Raccoons:
Comparison of ONRABH and RABORAL V-RGH Vaccine-Bait Field Performance in Quebec,
Canada and Vermont, USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 49(1), 2013, pp. 190–19
Mariner, Pfeiffer, Costard, Knopf, Zingeser, Chibeu, Parmley, Musenero, Pinsang, Okuthe, Bloland,
Jost, Hendrickx, Mehta. 2012. Institutional Analysis to Enhance Performance of Surveillance
Systems. Epidémiologie et Santé Animale (in press).
Payne, Susan L., Pauline Delnatte, Guo Jianhua, J. Jill Heatley, Ian Tizard, Dale A. Smith. 2012.
Birds and Bornaviruses. Animal Health Research Reviews, 13, pp 145-156.
Peregrine A.S., E.J. Jenkins, B. Barnes, S. Johnson, L. Polley, I.K. Barker, B. De Wolf, and B.
Gottstein. 2012. Alveolar hydatid disease (Echinococcus multilocularis) in the liver of a Canadian
dog in British Columbia, a newly endemic region. Canadian Veterinary Journal 53(8): 870-874.
Rees,E.R., E. H. Merrill, T. K. Bollinger, Y. T Hwang, M. J. Pybus, D. W. Coltman. 2012.
Targeting the detection of chronic wasting disease use the hunter harvest during early phase of an
outbreak in Saskatchewan, Canada. Preventative Veterinary Medicine 104 : 149-159.
Sawford K, Vollman AR, Stephen C . 2012. A Focused Ethnographic Study of Sri Lankan
Government Field Veterinarians’ Decision Making about Diagnostic Laboratory Submissions and
Perceptions of Surveillance. PLoS ONE 7(10): e48035. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048035
Schurer, J.M., J. Hill, C. Fernando, and E.J. Jenkins. 2012. Sentinel surveillance for zoonotic
parasites in companion animals in Indigenous communities of Saskatchewan. American Journal of
Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 87(3): 495-498. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0273
Silbernagel, E.R., N. K. Skelton, C. L Waldner, T. K. Bollinger. August 2011. Interaction among
Deer in a CWD Endemic Zone. Journal of Wildlife Management 75(6): 1453-1461
Simon, A, Bigras Poulin, M, Rousseau, AN, Dubey, JP, Ogden, NH, Spatiotemporal dynamics of
Toxoplasma gondii infection in Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) in western Quebec, Canada
Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 49(1), 2013, pp. 39–48
Soos, C., Parmley, E.J., McAloney, K., Pollard, B., Jenkins, E., Kibenge, F., Daoust, P.-Y., and
Leighton, F.A. 2012 Bait trapping linked to higher avian influenza virus detection in wild ducks,
Journal of Wildlife Diseases 48(2):444-448.
Stephen C. 2013. Toward a new definition of animal health: lessons from the Cohen Commission
and SPS Agreement. Optimum Online. 42(5) (in press).
Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2012
Research, Diagnosis and Surveillance of Wildlife Pathogens
Valiex S, Lokugalappati LGS, Abeynayake P, Prasad T, Chandrasiri ADN, Daniel SLA, Stephen C,
Leighton T. 2012. A feasibility study for the establishment of a national wildlife health centre in Sri
Lanka. Rev sci tech Off int Epiz. 30(3): 740-753.
Van Der Hoop JM, MJ Moore, SG Barco, TVN Cole, P-Y Daoust, AG Henry, DF McAlpine, WA
McLellan, T Wimmer, and AR Solow. 2012. Assessment of management to mitigate anthropogenic
effects on large whales. Conservation Biology DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2012.01934.x
Verocai, G.G., Lejeune, M., Beckmen, K.B., Kashivakura, C.K., Veitch, A.M., Popko, R.A.,
Fuentealba, C., Hoberg, E.P., Kutz, S.J. 2013. Defining parasite biodiversity at high latitudes of
North America: New host and geographic records for Onchocerca cervipedis (Nematoda:
Onchocercidae) in moose and caribou (2012) Parasites & Vectors, p. 242. Article in Press.
Wagner, B.A., Hoberg, E.P., Somers, C.M., Soos, C., Fenton, H., and Jenkins, E.J. 2012.
Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) at four
sites in Saskatchewan, Canada. Comparative Parasitology 79(2):275-282.
Warnecke, L., J. M. Turner, T. K. Bollinger, J. M. Lorch, V. Misra, P. M. Cryan, G. Wibbelt, D. S.
Blehert, C. K. R. Willis. 2012. Inoculation of bats with European Geomyces destructans supports
the novel pathogen hypothesis for the origin of white-nose syndrome. PNAS 109 (18); 6999-7003.
Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2012