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Transcript
The Healthy Human Body
CHAPTER 9
Learning Objectives
•
Describe body systems and define key anatomical terms
•
Describe each of the body systems:
•
Integumentary
•
Musculoskeletal
•
Nervous
•
Circulatory
•
Respiratory
•
Urinary
•
Gastrointestinal
•
Endocrine
•
Reproductive
•
Immune and lymphatic
Body Systems and Anatomical Terms
Homeostasis
Body
systems
Organs
Cells
Tissues
Integumentary System
What
does it
do?
• Largest organ and system
• Protective covering
• Sense organ
How
does it
change?
• Thinner, drier, fragile, itchy
• Thinner, gray hair
• Wrinkles and brown spots
• Brittle nails
• Thinning fatty tissue
How
can you
help?
• Lotion
• Be gentle
• Layer clothing
• Do NOT cut toenails
• Encourage fluids
Musculoskeletal System
What
does it
do?
• Muscles, bones, ligaments,
tendons, and cartilage
• Move the body, protect organs,
provide heat
How
does it
change?
• Muscles weaken and lose tone
• Slower body movement
• Brittle bones
• Stiff and painful joints
• Loss of height
How
can you
help?
• Prevent falls
• Promote self-care
• Encourage regular movement
Nervous System
What
does it
do?
• Control and message center
• CNS and PNS
How
does it
change?
• Slower responses and
reflexes
• Decreased sensitivity
• Short-term memory loss
How
can you
help?
• Allow time
• Avoid sudden changes
• Do NOT rush
• Encourage mental
stimulation
Sense Organs (part of the Nervous System)
What
does it
do?
• Contain receptors that relay
information to the nerves
How
does it
change?
• Decreased vision, hearing and
senses
• Sense of balance
How
can you
help?
• Keep eyeglasses and hearing
aids clean
• Proper lighting
• Speak slow and clear
• Repeat words when needed
• Use caution with hot drinks
and hot bath water
Circulatory System
What
does it
do?
• Heart, blood vessels, and
blood
• Supplies food, oxygen and
hormones to cells
How
does it
change?
• Less efficient pumping
• Decreased blood flow
• Narrowed blood vessels
How
can you
help?
• Encourage movement
• Assist with ROM
• Allow time
• Warmth
Inspiration
Respiratory System
What
does it
do?
• Nose, trachea, bronchi,
lungs
• Oxygen and carbon dioxide
exchange
How
does it
change?
• Decreased lung strength
and capacity
• Decreased oxygen in blood
• Weakened voice
How
can you
help?
• Encourage movement
• Rest periods
• Deep breathing exercises
• Assist to sit up
Expiration
Respiration
Urinary System
What
does it
do?
• Kidneys, ureters, bladder,
urethra, meatus
• Eliminate waste
• Maintain water balance
How
does it
change?
• Decreased kidney function
• Weakened bladder
• Increased risk of infection
How
can you
help?
• Encourage fluids
• Offer frequent trips to
bathroom
• Do NOT get frustrated
• Keep clean and dry
Gastrointestinal System
What
does it
do?
• GI tract and accessory
digestive organs
• Peristalsis, digestion,
elimination
How
does it
change?
• Decreased saliva production
• Dulled sense of taste
• Decreased absorption
• Longer digestion
• Slower elimination
How
can you
help?
• Encourage fluids and
nutritious meals
• Allow time
• Regular oral care
Endocrine System
What
does it
do?
• Glands in different areas of
the body
• Maintain homeostasis
How
does it
change?
• Decreased hormone levels
• Decreased insulin levels
• Decreased ability to handle
stress
How
can you
help?
• Encourage proper nutrition
• Eliminate or reduce
stressors
• Offer encouragement and
listen
Reproductive System
What
does it
do?
How does
it change?
How
can you
help?
• Reproductive organs
• Allows reproduction
• Men: decreased sperm
production and enlarged
prostate
• Women: menopause,
decreased estrogen, brittle
bones, drier and thinner vaginal
walls
• Provide privacy
• Respect sexual needs
• Report inappropriate behavior
Male Reproductive System
Immune and Lymphatic Systems
What
does it
do?
How does
it change?
How
can you
help?
• Immune
• Protects the body from
disease
• Lymphatic
• Removes excess fluids and
waste from tissues
• Weakened immune system
• Decreased number and size of
lymph nodes
• Decreased vaccine response
• Infection prevention
• Encourage proper nutrition and
fluid intake
• Take accurate vital signs
Review
•
Organization of the body
•
Anatomical terms
•
Various body systems
•
What they do
•
How it changes
•
How you can help