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Transcript
Nutrition for Adults: The Early,
Middle, and Later Years
1
Population Facts
By 2030 the U.S. population will grow to 363
million, up 29.2% from the year 2000.
 Life expectancy = 78 yrs by 2010

 74 yrs men, 81 yrs women
 1900 = 49 yrs
Life expectancy varies by group and income
 Women outlive men - average 6 yrs

2
Influences on Growth of Adults

Physical maturity
 Reached in late teen years
 Levels off in early adult years

Age groups
 Young adults (18 to 39 years)
 Identity, Intimacy (Erikson)
 Middle adults (40 to 64 years)
 Some sources = 40-70
 Generativity
 Older adults (65 years and older)
 Integrity
3
Young Adults

Lifestyle choices made now are very
important for maintaining “quality of life”
○ Physical exercise
○ Healthy food choices
○ Balanced meals
4
Middle Adults

early signs of chronic disease may start
to appear now
 Diabetes
 Heart disease, etc.
**wellness and health promotion to reduce risk
of disease are major focus of health care !!!
5
Older Adults

Kilocalories recommended:
 Metabolic demands are decreased
 Ages 51-70 = 2000 - 2500 cal/day
 Older than 71 = 1500 – 2200 cal/day

Carbohydrates
 50-60% total calories
 Minimum of 130 gm carb per day to maintain
healthy brain function for all age groups
6
Older Adults

Fats
 30% (20-35%) total calories, backup energy
 Avoid large quantities of fat
 Fat digestion/absorption delayed

Proteins
 Adult need = 0.8 g/kg (or up to 1.3 g/kg)
○ To prevent loss of muscle mass
 Average 50 gm per day
 Need for protein may increase during illness and
convalescence
7
Older Adults

Vitamins & Minerals
 Vit. D and calcium essential to prevent &
treat osteoporosis
 Iron may be needed to treat iron-deficiency
anemia
 Vit. B12 recommended for adults over age
50, older adults have decreased absorption
of B12
○ usually given as an injection
8
Aging Process and Nutrition
Needs

Effects on food patterns
 Diminished secretion of digestive enzymes
and motility of GI muscles causes
decreased absorption and use of nutrients
 Decreased taste, smell, and vision affect
appetite
 Higher calorie meal served at breakfast
○ To reduce GI effects at bedtime
9
Clinical Needs

Undernourishment risks:
 Low appetite
 Loneliness
 Lack of money
 Dental problems, tooth loss
 Gastrointestinal problems, decreased
secretions, decreased taste
 Dehydration, reduced thirst sensation
.
10
Assisted Feeding
Make no negative remarks about food
being served.
 Identify the food being served.
 Allow at least three bites of each item
before serving the next food.
 Allow time to chew and swallow.
 Give liquids throughout meal.
***allow pt. to self-feed if possible

11
Benefits of Physical Activity for
Senior Adults
Maintain independence
 Reduce blood pressure
 Improve stamina, muscle strength for those
with chronic conditions
 Reduce anxiety, depression symptoms
 Healthy bones, muscles, joints
 Control joint swelling and pain of arthritis
 30 minutes/day (1-3 sessions)

Copyright © 2009, by Mosby, Inc. an affiliate of
Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.
12
Chronic Diseases of Aging
Heart disease
 Cancer
 Arthritis
 Diabetes
 Alzheimer’s disease
 Renal disease

13
CDC Recommendations to
Prevent Chronic Disease
Stop smoking
 Limit alcohol intake
 Be physically active
 Maintain healthy weight
 Diet low in fat and cholesterol

14