Download I. The Renaissance-1350-1550 “Rebirth”

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Time period in European history in which there
was a “rebirth” of ancient Greek and Roman
ideas. After the Middle Ages, there was a
resurgence of intellectualism, art, literature,
architecture, etc. Many thinkers emphasized
the importance of the individual.
A. Italy-the Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest
of the world.
1. Leonardo da Vinci-“The Renaissance Man”-painter,
sculptor, architect, inventor, mathematician, etc.
2. Niccolo Machiavelli-Wrote The Prince, which
encouraged leaders to think about practicality
rather than morality in politics. These ideas have
influenced leaders around the world.
B. Social Classes-Renaissance society was strictly divided:
Nobility-Aristocrats who owned most of the land and
held political power as advisors to the king.
Peasants and Townsfolk-The large majority of people
ran businesses, traded, or worked for very low
wages with no power to change society.
Lorenzo
the Magnificent
1478 - 1521
Cosimo de Medici
1517 - 1574
Florence Under the Medici
Medici Chapel
The Medici Palace
The Liberation of
Sculpture
 David by Donatello
 1430
 First free-form bronze
since Roman times!
1. Self-Portrait -- da Vinci, 1512
 Artist
 Sculptor
 Architect
 Scientist
 Engineer
 Inventor
1452 - 1519
 Vitruvian Man
 Leonardo da
Vinci
 1492
The
L’uomo
universale
Mona Lisa OR da Vinci??
Refractory
Convent of Santa
Maria delle
Grazie
Milan
Man Can Fly?
2. Michelangelo Buonorrati
 1475 – 1564
 He represented
the body in
three
dimensions of
sculpture.
 15c
What
a
difference
a
century
makes!
16c 
 David
 Michelangelo
Buonarotti
 1504
 Marble
The Popes as Patrons of the Arts
The Pieta
Michelangelo
Buonarroti
1499
marble
The Sistine Chapel
Michelangelo
Buonarroti
1508 - 1512
The Sistine Chapel’s Ceiling
Michelangelo Buonarroti
1508 - 1512
The Sistine Chapel Details
The
Creation
of the
Heavens
3. Raffaello Sanzio (1483-1520)
Self-Portrait, 1506
Portrait of the Artist with
a Friend, 1518
The School of Athens – Raphael, 1510 -11
Da Vinci
Raphael
Michelangelo
The Liberation of St. Peter by Raphael, 1514

Religious reform movement that divides the
European Church into Catholic and Protestant
groups.

A. Christian Humanism-This group believed
in reason and inner religious piety. Erasmus
promoted the “philosophy of Christ” which
stressed inward religious feeling and living
good daily lives.

B. Reasons for Religious Reform-Corruption
was out of control within the Catholic Church
leadership. A series of popes and bishops
more concerned with politics, wealth and war
than they were the religious well being of the
church.

Indulgences-The practice of allowing
people to buy their way into heaven
with money or sacred relics. Meant
that the rich were more likely to get
salvation.


C. Martin Luthermonk and professor
in Germany who
questioned the
church’s practices and
believed in salvation
through faith in God.



1. The 95 Theses-Oct. 31, 1517-Luther
printed and posted a list of complaints
about the Catholic Church.
2. Edict of Worms-Luther was excommunicated
from the Catholic Church and made an outlaw
in Germany. Pope Leo X still saw Luther as
little threat to the church.
3. German rulers who supported Luther began to
take control of Catholic Churches in their
area. They changed services and focused on
reading the Bible rather than ceremonies.
All
over Europe, different
leaders challenged the
ideas of the Catholic
Church, creating new
forms of faith throughout
the continent.
 A.

Calvinism-John Calvin,
born in France, fled to
Switzerland.
His beliefs were very close to Martin
Luther’s, but he also believed in
predestination-the idea that God had already
chosen who would be saved and who would
not. Calvin reformed the city of Geneva and it
became the center of the latter part of the
Reformation.
B. The Anglican ChurchKing Henry VIII wanted to wife so
that he could try to have a son with
another woman, Ann Boleyn.
 The Catholic Church refused and Henry
created the Church of England, with
the King in control.
 After Henry’s death, the Anglican Church began
to move away from its Catholic roots towards
Protestantism.
 “Bloody Mary” became queen in 1535 and tried to
restore Catholicism, killing many Protestants
as heretics. She was successful in unifying
the people of England against her and making
the country fully Protestant.


C. Anabaptists-Believed in complete
separation of church and state. They believed
that anyone of the community could be the
church leader and that adult believers should be
baptized rather than infants.

A. Johan Gutenberg-German who invented
metal movable type for the printing
press.
The first book printed on the
Gutenberg press was the Bible.
The invention encouraged
people to read more and
religious texts
themselves.
interpret

B. Galileo-Built a telescope
that could track the
movements of the planets
and stars.

He wrote the Starry Messenger, contradicting
the Church’s theory that the earth was at the
center of the universe. He was put on trial and
jailed by the Church for the rest of his life.

C. Sir Thomas More-British
author who wrote Utopia,
about a perfect society in
which goods are created
and shared among the entire
population.

His ideas were used to create Socialist
communities. He was beheaded for not
supporting Henry VIII’s split with the Catholic
Church.

D. The Inquisition-The Roman Catholic
Church established a court to try those who
opposed the doctrines and teachings of the
Church. It killed and imprisoned many
individuals all over Europe.