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Diversity of Organisms
Living organisms are found almost everywhere
on earth.
They vary widely with respect to size, shape,
behavior and other features.
It is impossible for anyone to study this
immense number of living organism individually.
To deal with the great variety of life forms, it is
necessary to have some system of putting them
into groups.
Diversity of Organisms
Characteristics of life :
Order of Classification
all the living organism will be classified into
different kingdoms on the basis of their level
of organization, complexity and their mode of
The four kingdoms are the bacteria kingdom;
the protist kingdom, the plant kingdom
and the animal kingdom.
Order of Classification
Each kingdom is split into smaller groups called
phyla (or called division in plants). Each phylum
is further split into calluses, and so on.
Such gradual division are listed below:
Phylum or Division
Dichotomous key
The simplest way to identifying organism is to
construct a dichotomous key.
Such keys consist of a lost of structural features
about the specimen to be identified.
There are two alternatives for each features,
and each of these two alternatives will lead to
other features until the desired group of the
specimen is reached.
Dichotomous key
 Example of the use of dichotomous key
1 With flower.
Without flower
2 Seedless.
Seed bearing
3 Plant body do not differentiated into root,
stem and leaves.
Plant body differentiated into root, stem and
4 Without photosynthetic pigment.
With chlorophyll or other photosynthetic
5 No vascular tissues.
With vascular tissues
Go to 2
Go to 3
Go to 4
Go to 5
Dichotomous key
 the dichotomous key can also
be expressed in a diagrammatic form
Pla nts
With flower
Without flower
Flo we ring Pla nts
(Ang io sp erm )
Non-flo wering p la nts
Se ed -b e a ring
Se ed le ss
Pla nt b o d y no t
d iffe re ntia te d into
roo t, ste m a nd
le a ves
Without p ho tsynthetic p ig m e nt
Alg a e
Pla nt b o d y
d iffe re ntia te d
into stem a nd
le a ves
With c hloro p hyll or
o the r p ho to synthe tic
p ig m ent
Fung i
No va sc ula r
With va sc ula r
Mo sse s
Gym no sp e rm s
Nomenclature of organism
 Each kind of living organism has a specific
scientification name which composed of two parts.
 Scientist use binomial system for naming the
 This scientific name is different from the common
 The first part of the scientific name is the name of
the genus it belongs to and is known as the generic
Nomenclature of organism
 The generic name always begins with a capital letter
and the specific name always begins with a small letter.
 When handwritten or typed, the scientific name should
always be underlined. In print, they are in italics.
Nomenclature of organism
Common Name
Scientific Name
(genus name + species name)
Homo sapiens
Periplaneta americana
Plant Kingdom
 Almost all plants contain the green pigment chlorophyll
which they use for photosynthesis.
 The plant kingdom is divided into two major groups: the
non-flowering plants and the flowering plants
 Non-flowering plants do not produce flowers.
 Non-flowering plants are subdivided into algae, fungi,
mosses, ferns and gymnosperms
Plant Kingdom
 diagram of plant kingdom
Flowering plants
Non-flowering plants
Algae Fungi Mosses Ferns Gymnosperms
Plant Kingdom
Simple plants without roots, stems or leaves.
All contain chlorophyll and other pigments for
Most of them are green, while some are red or
Mainly live in water (aquatic).
Plant Kingdom
Plant Kingdom
Do not have roots, stems or leaves.
No chlorophyll present, so they cannot carry out
They are saprophytic (腐生), feed on dead organic
matter or parasitic (寄生) on other living organism.
They are made up of a network of fine filaments
called hyphea (菌絲).
Plant Kingdom
Plant Kingdom
Small green plants that have simple stems
and leaves but no true roots and vascular
Found mainly in damp places.
Anchored to ground by some hair-like structures
called rhizoid.
Plant Kingdom
Plant Kingdom
Have roots, stems or leaves.
Found mainly in damp and shady places.places.
Have vascular tissues for transporting water, minerals
salts and food substances.
Reproduce and disperse by forming spores
Plant Kingdom
Plant Kingdom
 Gymnosperm
Large evergreen trees with roots, stems and needleshaped leaves but no real flowers.
Have vascular tissues for transporting various
With seeds growing inside cones for reproduction.
When mature, the seeds in the cone become
exposed and are dispersed by wind.
Plant Kingdom
 Gymnosperm
Plant Kingdom
(flowering plants)
 Green plants with roots, stems and leaves.
 Have vascular tissues for transporting various
 Produce flowers and develop into fruits, with the seeds
enclosed inside after fertilization.
Animal Kingdom
 The invertebrates (無脊椎動物) are the animals that
do not posses a backbone or vertebral column (脊柱).
 The vertebrates (脊椎動物) are the animals that
posses a backbone, or vertebral column.
 They are usually larger than the invertebrates and have
a more complex body organization and structure.
 Vertebrates include mainly five classes: fish,
amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals.
Animal Kingdom
 Diagram of animal kingdom
Animal Kingdom
 Fish
Live in water, have a moist skin covered with scales.
Use gills for breathing.
Have fins for swimming and maintaining balance.
Cold-blooded (poikilothermic), their body
temperatures changes with that of the surrounding.
Animal Kingdom
 Fish
Animal Kingdom
 Amphibians
Have a smooth (scales-less) and moist skin.
In larva stage, lives in water and use gills for
In adult stage, lives on land and use lungs for
Paired limbs are present. (This feature distinguishes
the amphibians from the fish)
Animal Kingdom
 Amphibians
Animal Kingdom
 Reptiles (爬行動物)
Have a hard, dry scaly skin.
 Use lungs for breathing.
 Lay eggs enclosed in hard shells on land.
 Cold-blooded.
Animal Kingdom
 Amphibians
Animal Kingdom
 Birds
Body is covered with feathers.
Use lungs for breathing.
Fore-limbs are modified to wings for flying.
Have no teeth, mouth is modified to a beak.
Lay eggs enclosed in hard shells.
Warm-blooded (homoiothermic), their body
temperatures are constant and are independent of
the surrounding temperature.
Animal Kingdom
 Birds
Animal Kingdom
 Mammals
Body is covered with hairs.
Use lungs for breathing.
Young develop inside the body of the mother and are
born alive (viviparous reproduction).
Have mammary glands, which produce milk to
nourish the youngs.
The cerebrum (大腦) is more well-developed than
other vertebrate.
Have a diaphragm (橫隔膜)
Animal Kingdom
 Mammals
Difference between plants
and animals
Structure a. Have a diffuse or
branching body and the
number of organs
changes all the time.
b. Cells surrounded by a
cellulose cell wall.
c. Have chlorophyll.
d. Lack feeding structure
a. Have a more define body
form and a fixed number
of organs.
b. Cells do not have a cell
c. Lack chlorophyll.
d. Have feeding structures
such as mouth and
digestive tract.
Autotrophic: able to make
Heterotrophic: obtain organic
organic food from inorganic food depend on other
substance by photosynthesis. organism.
Difference between plants
and animals
Movement a. The whole body usually
fixed to the ground, only
parts of the body can
b. Usually movement is
result of growth in low
a. Whole body can move
from place to place.
b. b.Movement is relatively
Response a. No receptors and nervous a. Have receptors and
nervous system.
b. Less sensitive and
b. Respond more quickly.
respond more slowly.
Difference between plants
and animals
a. Produce less waste
b. No specialized excretory
a. Produce more metabolic
wastes products.
b. With special excretory
organ or system.
The growth is indefinitely. i.e.
can grow through continues
throughout the life. Mainly
occur at the tips of the roots
and the shoots.
The growth is definite. i.e.
growth stops at maturity.
Occurs throughout the whole
Respiration The respiratory in the body is
The respiratory in the body is