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How your Body uses Food
Unit 1
Nutrition 101
Digestion


The process of breaking down food
into usable nutrients.
It takes place in the digestive
system, a long, hallow tube that
extends from the mouth through
the entire body.
The Mouth




Can begin even before food enters
into your mouth.
Saliva is the first of many digestive
juices that act on food to break it
down chemically.
Teeth- grinds into tiny pieces
Chewing food well is important
The Esophagus



Once swallowed, it passes thru the
esophagus.
Esophagus- long tube connecting
the mouth to the stomach.
The muscles of the esophagus
contract and relax, creating a series
of wavelike movements that force the
food into the stomach, this is known
as peristalsis.
The Stomach



Muscular pouch located on the left
of your body, inside the rib cage.
Walls of stomach manufacture
gastric juices– a combination of acid
and enzymes that helps in the
chemical breakdown of food.
Food is churned until it turns into a
thick liquid called chyme. (KIME)
The Stomach


continued
Different foods take different
amounts of time to break down.
Think of your stomach as a holding
tank.
 Carbs- 1-2 hours
 Proteins-3-5 hours
 Fats- 7 hours
The Small Intestines



From the stomach, chyme is released
into the small intestine a little at a
time.
The small intestine is a long,
winding tube between the stomach
and the large intestines.
Here, the chyme is acted on by three
types of digestive jucies:



Bile- substance that helps yoru body
diest and absorb fats. Produced in
liver, stored in gall bladder until
needed.
Pancreatic juice- Contains enzymes
that help break down carbs, proteins,
and fats.
Intestinal juice- produced in small
intestine. The digestive fluid works
with the others to break down food.
The Small Intestine


continued
When fully broken down, carbs are
turned into simple sugar called
glucose.
Glucose- Body’s basic fuel supply.
Fats are changed into fatty acids.
Proteins are broken down into amino
acids.

Vitamins, minerals, and water do not
need to be broken down– they are
ready for action, as is.
Absorption



After digestion, the nutrients are
absorbed into the bloodstream.
Villi- fingerlike projections- absorb
nutrients.
After absorption, some waste
mineral, including fiber, is left in the
small intestine.

It is then moved into the large
intestines, AKA colon