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How your Body uses Food
Unit 1
Nutrition 101
The process of breaking down food
into usable nutrients.
It takes place in the digestive
system, a long, hallow tube that
extends from the mouth through
the entire body.
The Mouth
Can begin even before food enters
into your mouth.
Saliva is the first of many digestive
juices that act on food to break it
down chemically.
Teeth- grinds into tiny pieces
Chewing food well is important
The Esophagus
Once swallowed, it passes thru the
Esophagus- long tube connecting
the mouth to the stomach.
The muscles of the esophagus
contract and relax, creating a series
of wavelike movements that force the
food into the stomach, this is known
as peristalsis.
The Stomach
Muscular pouch located on the left
of your body, inside the rib cage.
Walls of stomach manufacture
gastric juices– a combination of acid
and enzymes that helps in the
chemical breakdown of food.
Food is churned until it turns into a
thick liquid called chyme. (KIME)
The Stomach
Different foods take different
amounts of time to break down.
Think of your stomach as a holding
 Carbs- 1-2 hours
 Proteins-3-5 hours
 Fats- 7 hours
The Small Intestines
From the stomach, chyme is released
into the small intestine a little at a
The small intestine is a long,
winding tube between the stomach
and the large intestines.
Here, the chyme is acted on by three
types of digestive jucies:
Bile- substance that helps yoru body
diest and absorb fats. Produced in
liver, stored in gall bladder until
Pancreatic juice- Contains enzymes
that help break down carbs, proteins,
and fats.
Intestinal juice- produced in small
intestine. The digestive fluid works
with the others to break down food.
The Small Intestine
When fully broken down, carbs are
turned into simple sugar called
Glucose- Body’s basic fuel supply.
Fats are changed into fatty acids.
Proteins are broken down into amino
Vitamins, minerals, and water do not
need to be broken down– they are
ready for action, as is.
After digestion, the nutrients are
absorbed into the bloodstream.
Villi- fingerlike projections- absorb
After absorption, some waste
mineral, including fiber, is left in the
small intestine.
It is then moved into the large
intestines, AKA colon