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# Download Thevenin's and Norton's Equivalent Circuit

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Thevenin’s and Norton’s Equivalent Circuit Tutorial. (by Kim, Eung) Thevenin's Theorem states that we can replace entire network by an equivalent circuit that contains only an independent voltage source in series with an impedance (resistor) such that the current-voltage relationship at the load is unchanged. Norton's Thereom is identical to Thevenin's Theorem except that the equivalent circuit is an independent current source in parallel with an impedance (resistor). Therefore, the Norton equivalent circuit is a source transformation of the Thevenin equivalent circuit. Original Circuit Norton‘s Equivalent Circuit Thevenin’s Equivanlent Circuit They are Interchangeable 1 How to find Thevenin's Equivalent Circuit? If the circuit contains You should do 1) Connect an open circuit between a and b. 2) Find the voltage across the open circuit which is Voc. Voc = Vth. Resistors and independent sources 3) Deactivate the independent sources. Voltage source Î open circuit Current source Î short circuit 4) Find Rth by circuit resistance reduction 1) Connect an open circuit between a and b. 2) Find the voltage across the open circuit which is Voc. Voc = Vth. Resistors and dependent sources or independent shorces If there are both dependent and independent sources. 3) Connect a short circuit between a and b. 4) Determine the current between a and b. 5) Rth = Voc / Iab If there are only dependent sources. 3) Connect 1 Ampere current source flowing from terminal b to a. It = 1 [A] 4) Then Rth = Voc / It = Voc / 1 Note: When there are only dependent sources, the equivalent network is merely RTh, that is, no current or voltage sources. 2 How to find Norton's Equivalent Circuit? If the circuit contains You should do Resistors and independent sources - Deactivate the independent sources. Voltage source Î open circuit Current source Î short circuit - Find Rt by circuit resistance reduction - Connect an short circuit between a and b. - Find the current across the short circuit which is Isc. 1) Connect a short circuit between a and b. 2) Find the current across the short circuit which is Isc. Isc = In. Resistors and dependent sources or Independent sources If there are both dependent and independent sources. 3) Connect a open circuit between a and b. 4) Determine the voltage between a and b. Voc = Vab 5) Rn = Voc / Isc If there are only dependent sources. 3) Connect 1 Ampere current source flowing from terminal b to a. It = 1 [A] 4) Then Rn = Voc / It = Voc / 1 Note: When there are only dependent sources, the equivalent network is merely RTh, that is, no current or voltage sources. References 1. Introduction to Electric Circuits 5th Edition. Richard C. D and James A. S. 2001. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3