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Review :
Defining the Brand
Diyah Ayu Amalia Avina M.Si
[email protected]
• The brand is and has been defined in many different
ways over the years, depending on the perspective
from which the brand is perceived.
• Often that depends on the academic background of
the author/ originator of the different definitions
(Dinnie, 2009:9)
Part of the confusion about brands is that
the word is used in at least three separate
but interrelated senses:
What the meaning of the
• Brand defined by tangible
characeter  as a brand
name and brand identity /
brand elements
• Brand from consumers gut
feeling / mental association
Classical Perspective
• Brand is :
• “name, term, sign, symbol or design, or a
combination of them intended to identify the goods
and services of one seller or group of sellers and to
differentiate them from those of competitors.”
• (American Marketing Association. 2007)
Contemporary Perspective
Contemporary Perspective..(1)
a brand is a set of mental associations, held by the
consumer, which add to the perceived value of a
product or service’ (Keller, 1998). These associations
should be unique (exclusivity), strong (saliency) and
positive (desirable). (kapferer 2008:10)
CAR = Exclusive, fast =
CAR = Affordable price,
good, easy to use, easy to
buy, easy to re sell =
Contemporary Perspective..(2)
A brand is a perception resulting from experiences
with, and information about, a company or a line of
products (Duncan, 2005).
Luxurious, quality, cozy = Underwear
Contemporary perspective..(3)
A brand is a persons gut feeling about a product, service, or
company. It’s a gut feeling because we are all emotional, intuitive
beings, despite our best efforts to be rational (Neumeier. 2006:2)
What is your gut feeling about the companies above?
How did you arrive at those feelings?
What exactly is a brand?
It is much more than a logo,syimbol or a name.
A brand represents the full ‘personality’ of the company and is the
interface between a company and its audience.
A brand may come into contact with its audience in various ways:
from what we see and hear, through to our physical experiences with
the brand and general feelings or perceptions we have about a
What exactly is a brand?
A brand encapsulates both the tangible and the
intangible and can be applied to almost anything :
a person (like David Beckham),
a product or business (Apple, Coca-Cola,
a country,
politics , or even a nebulous idea (George Bush’s
‘War on Terror’ or Britain’s short-lived ‘Cool
Britannia’ in the 1990s).
• A brand is an intangible asset that resides in people’s
hearts and minds.
• It’s defined by the expectations people have about
tangible and intangible benefits that are developed
over time by communications and, more
importantly, by actions!
brand …
• A name becomes a brand when consumers associate
it with a set of tangible and intangible benefits that
they obtain from the product or service
• It is the seller’s promise to deliver the same bundle
of benefits/services consistently to buyers
To plan for one year, grow sales.
To plan for three years, grow channel.
To plan for decades, grow a brand.
Brand ≠ Product
• A product is any offering by a company to a market
that serves to satisfy customer needs and
wants.(kotler 2000:394)
• It can be an goods, services, idea, event, person,
place, Hope, business or organization, Hoperesponsibility act, experience or facility, time,
A product is built in a “factory”.
A brand is built of trust and relationships
A product is an “object”.
A brand is a personality.
A product is “sold” by a merchant.
A brand is “bought” by a customer.
A product is easily “copied” by a
A brand is unique.
A great brand is timeless.
A product is “quickly outdated”.
Brand name
The importance of
Why brands are a big
• Brands unlock profitability
• Today’s marketplace is full of more products than ever
before, and, overwhelmed by the selection, people
choose and pay premium prices only for products
they’ve heard of, trust, and believe deliver higher value
than the others.
• Brands prompt consumer selection
• consumers can shop and buy without any geographic
Why brands are a big
• Brands build name awareness
• good reason, new businesses and products increasingly
go by invented names instead of by known words.
• Brands increase the odds of business survival
• Only those that ride into the market on the strength of
an established brand or those that are capable of
building a brand name in a hurry can seize consumer
awareness, understanding, and preference fast enough
to survive.
Brand’s Function
Product differentiation 
higher differentitation = higher loyalty
= higher mark-up = higherprofitability
Easy to choose
Trust = emotional Bonding
Understanding of the quality
unique company profile:
differentiation on market
brand equity = nilai dari brand (nilai
surplus dibandingkan dengan produk
yang tidak di brand)
Company’s Asset
• Communication is the
of brand Management
Type of Brand
(not mutually exclusive)
• Based on function or economic value of the Brand
• Ex : Rinso – Detergent ; Honda Jazz = city car ; Yamaha Mio : cheap
• users/consumers can express themselves trough the brand
• Ex : Lambourghini = exclusive-high class car ; Yamaha Byson : manly
• mengajak konsumen untuk merasakan, mengalami apa yang ditawarkan
oleh brand tersebut.
• Tentu saja suasana, penyajian dan sebagainya yang mendukung
terciptanya suatu pengalaman yang dirasakan konsumen
• Ex : Disneyland ; Burj Al Arab ; Aple, McD, etc
Economic approach
(company / sender
Identity approach
The consumer-based approach
Brand Management
Human receiver
The personality approach
The relational approach
Community approach
Cultural context
Cultural approach
7 Brand Approach
(Helding et all,2009:3)
Process to build the Brand
how to create gut feelings in
the mind of your target
• Branding means much more than just giving a brand
name and signaling to the outside world that such a
product or service has been stamped with the mark
and imprint of an organization. It requires a
corporate long-term involvement, a high level of
resources and skills.
(Kapferer 2008:31)
branding :
From Products to Brands