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ABPL 90085 CULTURE OF BUILDING
early services
COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA
Copyright Regulations 1969
Warning
This material has been reproduced and communicated to you
by or on behalf of the University of Melbourne pursuant to Part
VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act).
The material in this communication may be subject to copyright
under the Act. Any further copying or communication of this
material by you may be the subject of copyright protection
under the Act.
do not remove this notice
ventilation & cooling
Nakht and his wife adore Osiris in the hereafter: painted papyrus,
late 18th – early 19th Dynasty, c 1350-1290 BC. EA 10471/21
J H Taylor [ed], Journey through the Afterlife: Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead
(British Museum Press, London 2010), p 251
wind scoop, or malqaf, in Herat, Afghanistan, section
George Michell [ed], Architecture of the Islamic World: its History and Social
Meaning (New York 1978), p 203
the operation
of a malqaf
Loredana Ficarelli, 'The
Domestic Architecture in
Egypt between Past and
Present: the Passive
Cooling in Traditional
Construction', in K-E
Kurrer et al [eds],
Proceedings of the Third
International Congress on
Construction History (3
vols, Brandenburg
University of Technology,
Cottbus 2009), II, p 574
house of Muhibb Al-Din Muwaggi, Cairo, c 1350
James Steele, Hassan Fathy (London 1988), p 36
house of Muhibb Al-Din Muwaggi: section showing air movement
Steele, Hassan Fathy, p 37
house of
Muhibb Al-Din
Muwaggi:
plan & section
with air
movement
Steele, Hassan
Fathy, p 37
section and plan of a ventilated room, Iran
Khansari & Yavari, Espace Persan, p 101
wind towers and domes of underground cisterns in Yazd, Iran
Michell, Architecture of the Islamic World, p 189
wind tower with diagonal walls
circulating air in a summer room
Michell, Architecture of the Islamic World, p 203
a wind catcher
Beazley & Harverson,
Living with the Desert, p 62
inside a wind tower at Abyāne
Khansari & Yavari, Espace Persan p 39
types of wind
catcher
Beazley & Harverson, Living with
the Desert, pp 60-1, 62
summerhouse at the Bagh‐e Dolat Abad, Yazd
Miles Lewis
the biggest wind catcher in Iran, on the Khan's pavilion at Bagh-i Dowlatabad
Beazley & Harverson, Living with the Desert, p 62
base of the badgir at the Bagh‐e Dolat Abad, Yazd
Miles Lewis
a flue of the badgir at the Bagh‐e Dolat Abad, Yazd
Miles Lewis
fort at al-'Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Republic, with wind catchers
Lewis, Architectura, p 319
the
performance
of a wind
catcher in a
Yazdi house
Beazley &
Harverson, Living
with the Desert, p
68
an ice house
near Yazd,
Iran, in plan
and section
Beazley & Harverson,
Living with the Desert,
pp 51, 52
icehouse, Abarkuh
Miles Lewis
icehouse, Abarkuh
Miles Lewis
'Horsely', Horsely Park, New South Wales, built c 1832: dining room with punkah
Mitchell Library, Sydney
the Colosseum, Rome, AD 70-82: supposed form of the velarium
Ian Westwell & Robin Pereira, Ancient Monuments Revealed
(Chartwell Books, Edison [New Jersey] 2006), p 11
the Colosseum, Rome: reconstruction of the operation of the velarium
Ian Westwell & Robin Pereira, Ancient Monuments Revealed
(Chartwell Books, Edison [New Jersey] 2006), pp 84, 85
ancient civilisations and the 70º F (22°C) isotherm
Brian Roberts, The Comfort Makers (Atlanta [Georgia] 2000), p xi
Çatal Hüyük,
Turkey, c 6000 BC
Flon, World Atlas of
Archaeology, p 169
so-called ‘megaron’, Kultepe [or
Kanesh], modern Turkey, Late Early
Bronze Age, c 2200 BC: probably
Luvian, and probably a temple
J G Macqueen, The Hittites (London 1986 [1975]), p 30
Seton Lloyd, Early Highland Peoples of Anatolia
(London 1967)
model cooking oven from Tanagra, Greece, C5th BC: Musée du Louvre, Paris
Miles Lewis
LaTène III wrought
iron firedog, c 5025 BC, Welwyn
Burial A,
Hertfordshire.
British Museum
PRB 1911 12-8-2
Miles Lewis
dikang, or kang sub-floor heating system: cutaway view
Guo Qinghua, A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture (Melbourne 2002), p 116
dikang,
section &
plan
Guo Qinghua, A
Visual Dictionary of
Chinese
Architecture
(Melbourne 2002), p
116
heating system of the caldarium at the Central Baths, Pompeii
Jean-Pierre Adam [translated Anthony Matthews], Roman Building Materials and Techniques
(Indiana UOP, Bloomington [Indiana] 1994), p 270
Forum Baths at Ostia: cross-section of the hypocaust of
the caldarium, below the pool.
Jean-Pierre Adam [translated Anthony Matthews], Roman Building Materials and
Techniques (Indiana UOP, Bloomington [Indiana] 1994), p 266
liveholes of a hypocaust at Aquincum, Hungary, c AD C2nd-4th
Miles Lewis
Roman
hypocaust
system in the
baths at Perge,
Turkey
James Steele,
Hellenistic Architecture
in Asia Minor (London
1992), p 196
hypocaust floor of a Roman villa, Chichester, England
Sandström, Man the Builder, p 77
hypocaust floors
at Aquincum with
brick and stone
pillars
Miles Lewis
Women’s Baths, Aquincum, Hungary, c AD C2nd-4th
Miles Lewis
Women’s Baths,
Aquincum
detail of ducting tiles
(reproductions in
foreground)
Miles Lewis
the
arrangement
of a Roman
hypocaust
Josef Durm, Die
Baukunst der Römer
(1905), p 358, fig 395
hollow flue tiles from the hypocaust systems of the Roman villas at
Plaxtol, Kent AD C2nd. British Museum P&E 2007, 8032.1; at Chichester
Miles Lewis; Sandström, Man the Builder, p 77
iron clamps for box flue tiles, from Risingham, Northumberland, and Hod Hill, Dorset
British Museum PRB 1879.12-9.2075; 1960.4-5.940
Miles Lewis
two types of tegula mammata at the Stabian Baths, Pompeii
Jean-Pierre Adam [translated Anthony Matthews], Roman Building Materials and Techniques (Indiana UOP,
Bloomington [Indiana] 1994), p 268
an iron holdfast, and
reconstruction of its use
with a baked clay spacer,
after J H Money. British
Museum
Miles Lewis
tepidarium of the baths at Shaaba
[Philippopolis], Syria, c AD 300
Miles Lewis
tepidarium at Shaaba showing the wall flues
Miles Lewis
the hypocaust at Qasr Amra, Jordan, AD 711:
furnace opening & sub- floor structure
Miles Lewis
Hammam-al Basha, Acre,
Israel, 1795, cutaway view
Martin Dow, Islamic Baths of Palestine
(OUP, Oxford 1996), p 3
Hammam-al Basha, Acre, Israel, 1795, section.
Martin Dow, Islamic Baths of Palestine (OUP, Oxford 1996), p 25
smoke exhaust tiles
with a 260 mm oculus,
from the House of the
Moralist, Pompeii
with a hood, House of
the Centenary,
Pompeii, IX, 8, 6
Jean-Pierre Adam [translated Anthony
Matthews], Roman Building Materials
and Techniques (Indiana UOP,
Bloomington [Indiana] 1994), p 215
C14th cruck cottage with half loft and a louvre over the hearth
MUAS 15,860
the hall at Penshurst Place, Kent, 13th
century: plan
Olive Cook, The English Country House: an art and a way
of life (Thames & Hudson, London 1984 [1974]), p 12
smoke lantern of a
house in Old
Woodstock, England
(possibly medieval)
J C Pilling, Oxfordshire Houses
(Oxfordshire Books, Stroud
[Gloucestershire] 1993)), p 5
kitchen at
Stanton
Harcourt,
Oxfordhire,
England, 15th
century
Olive Cook, The English
Country House: an art and a
way of life (Thames &
Hudson, London 1984
[1974]), p 15
fireplace at Conisborough Castle, Yorkshire, c 1070
Charles Tomlinson, A Rudimentary Treatise on Warming and Ventilation (John
Weale, London 1850), p 59
Rochester Castle, Kent, c 1127
fireplace; lithograph view by H Adlard after G F Sargent, c 1836
Charles Tomlinson, A Rudimentary Treatise on Warming and Ventilation (John
Weale, London 1850), p 59; English Heritage web site for Rochester Castle
Slav house type, C5th-10th AD
Flon, World Atlas of Archaeology, p 141, after P A Rappoport, Drevnerusskoe zilisce [the Houses
of Ancient Russia] (Leningrad 1975), pp 157, 158, fig 58
Russian vapour bath
Finnian Warnock 2010
a stove
room,
Germany
woodcut by
Hans Beham
from Fuchs,
Illustrierte
Sittengeschichte
tile stoves: (left) from Ravensburg, Germany, c 1450 (V&A 548-1872); right,
made by Hans Kraut of Villengen, Germany, 1577
Alun Graves, Tiles and Tilework of Europe (London 2002, p 68
tiled stove of 1454-7, in the National Museum, Budapest; stove of the
Maréchal de Saxe at the Chateau of Chambord, France, ?C18th
Miles Lewis
tile stoves at the Erik Anders
house, Halsingland, Sweden
Miles Lewis
tile stove at the Kristofers house, Halsingland, Sweden
Miles Lewis
19th century stoves at the Wendish Museum, Cottbus, Germany
Miles Lewis
traditional East German kitchen and tiled stove
Gustave Wolf, Das Norddeutscher Dorf (R Piper & Co, Munchen 1925), p 27
heating the parlour
or stub from the
kitchen, as done in
Alsace, France
Maurice Ruch, La Maison
Alsacienne à Colombage
(Berger-Levrault,
Strasbourg, 1977), p 71
heating of a German settler’s house, Harmonie, Indiana, USA, with a ‘Dutch drum’, early C19th
Gustave Wolf, Das Norddeutscher Dorf (R Piper & Co, Munchen 1925), p 27
fireplace crane, Bokrijk, Belgium, no 53
Mildes Lewis
fireplace furniture at the Chateau of Azay-le Rideau, France, early C16th onwards
Miles Lewis
the turnspit
E H Knight, The Practical Dictionary of Mechanics (3 vols,
Cassell, Petter, Galpin, London 1877-84), I,II p 1956
fireplace with crane and turnspit at the Hospices de Beaune, France
Miles Lewis
the turnspit
mechanism at
Beaune
Miles Lewis
Mohenjo-Daro, Pakistan, c 25002000 BC aerial view of part of
the citadel, street with limestone
blocks over drains, great bath &c
Christine Flon [ed], The World Atlas of
Archaeology (London 1985), p 243
drain with
limestone
slabs over
circular
well
Great
Bath
possible
storehouse
with
subfloor
ventilation
channels
sub-floor drain
plan of part of the Temple of Inshushinak & Kiririsha at Choga Zanbil, Iran C12th BC
R Ghirshman et al, Tchoga-Zanbil (Der-Untash) Volume II Temenos, temples, palais, Tombes [Memoires of
the Mission Archéologique en Iran, vol xl] (Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner, Paris 1968),loose plan
drain under room 18, Temple of Inshushinak & Kiririsha, two views
Miles Lewis
vertical drains at Choga Zanbil: base of the ziggurat; East Temple of Kiririsha
Miles Lewis; R Ghirshman et al, Tchoga-Zanbil (Der-Untash) Volume I La Ziggurat [Memoires of the Mission
Archéologique en Iran, vol xxxix] (Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner, Paris 1966), p 117
Akkadian Palace at
Eshnunna, Mesopotamia,
3rd millennium BC:
vaulted sewer
Seton Lloyd, 'Building in Brick and
Stone', in Charles Singer et al [eds], A
History of Technology, vol I, From
Early Times to Fall of Ancient Empires
(Oxford 1954), p 466
closet/latrine at Eshnunna
Lloyd, 'Building in Brick and Stone', p 469
drain at Phaestos, Crete, c 1700-1450 BC
Miles Lewis
ancient Assyrian sewers at Nimrud
Anson Marston, ‘Sewers and Drains’, in C B Ball et al, Sanitary, Heating, and
Ventilation Engineering (4 vols, American Technical Society, Chicago 1924), I, p 235
Palace of Minos, Knossos,
section of latrine, c 2000 BC
Kilroy, The Compleat Loo, p 10
Palace of Minos, latrine, plan
Kilroy, The Compleat Loo, p 10
Akroteri, Santorini, putative latrine seat, c C17th BC
Miles Lewis
shaped limestone latrine seat
from the city of Akhenaten,
Egypt
Roger Kilroy, The Compleat Loo (London
1984), p 10
commode from the tomb of Kha in Deir el-Medinah Thebes no 8, 18th Dynasty, Egypt:
Museo Egizio, Turin
Rose-Marie & Rainer Hagen, Egypt: People, Gods, Paroahs (Taschen, Koln & London 1999), p 134
Roman latrine at Housesteads Fort on Hadrian's Wall, Scotland
Kilroy, The Compleat Loo, p 11
Roman latrine,
Aquincum, Hungary, AD
C4th
Miles Lewis
Roman
latrines,
Ephesus,
Turkey, and
Lepcis
Magna,
north Africa
Miles Lewis
Kilroy, The Compleat
Loo, p 11
Roman latrine, Villa Ghajn, Tuffieha, Malta
J S Tagliaferro, Malta: its Archaeology and
History (Luqa [Malta], no date), p 44
Cloaca Maxima (main drain), Rome, begun by
the Etruscans, rebuilt by Augustus
Anson Marston, ‘Sewers and Drains’, in C B Ball et al, Sanitary, Heating, and Ventilation
Engineering (4 vols, American Technical Society, Chicago 1924), I, p 235
Cloaca Maxima (main drain), Rome, begun by the
Etruscans, rebuilt by Augustus: Tiber outlet
Frank Sear
generalised plan of a Cistercian abbey according to Bernard of Clairvaux
Ulrike Laule, Burgundy: Art, Architecture, Landscape (H F Ullmann, no place 2007), p 116
tapered drainpipes:from Mohenjo-Daro, c 2500 BC, and Alaça, Turkey
Pannell, Man the Builder, p 180; Miles Lewis; Macqueen, The Hittites, p 41
drainpipes at the Palace of Knossos, Crete, 1700-5550 BC
Wright, Clean and Decent, p 6; Miles Lewis
drainage device in a mound in Iraq; underground drains of the Prytaneion,
Ephesus, Turkey c 31 BC - AD 14
Georges Perrot & Charles Chipiez, A History of Art in Chaldea and Assyria (2 vols, London
1884), I, p 159, fig 49; Miles Lewis
terra cotta drainpipes at Pompeii
Jean-Pierre Adam [translated Anthony Matthews], Roman Building Materials and
Techniques (Indiana UOP, Bloomington [Indiana] 1994), p 262
water tunnels at Gezer, Megiddo, and Gibeon ?c 1000 BC, in plan and section
by A Picard, in A G Barrois, Manuel d'Archéologie Biblique, I, II
a shadūf from Thebes, Egypt
Knight, Dictionary of Mechanics, III, p 2126
modern shadūf; Anglo-Saxon draw well ; Hindu picotah
Knight, Dictionary of Mechanics, III, p 2126; II, pp 1698
whip at Skansen Museum, Sweden
Miles Lewis
Roman period
wooden well at
Skeldergate,
York, England
D Raines, The
Archaeology of York
(York 1979), p 9 fig 5
Venetian well head, C9th-10th, Musée du Louvre RF3015
C15th well head at the Hôtel de Cluny, Paris
Miles Lewis
Renaissance well heads, Trieste Museum, Italy
Miles Lewis
treadmill
operated
system for
raising water
from a well, by
Paolo Santini
(after Taccola)
Ms Lat 7259 (BNP) fol
47r
Renaissance period mechanism with jack, lever, and tub and
counterweight system to draw water
Francesco di Giorgio, Opusculum, fol 58r, after Taccola, De Ingeneis, III-IV
norias and
sāqiyas
noria with short shaft
sāqiya with long shaft
sāqiya with long elevated shaft
Thorkild Schiøler,
Roman and Islamic
Water-Lifting Wheels
(Odense U P, Odense
[Denmark] 1973), pp
12-1
noria at Ibiza, Balearic Islands: section
Schiøler, Water-Lifting Wheels, p 17
noria at Ibiza
Schiøler, Water-Lifting Wheels, p 16
the noria or bucket wheel
E H Knight, The Practical Dictionary of Mechanics (3 vols,
Cassell, Petter, Galpin, London 1877-84), p 1533
norias at
Hama, Syria
Henri Stierlin, Islam
Volume I: Early
Achitecture from
Baghdad to Cordoba
(Taschen, Köln 1996),
p 212
detail of the
noria at Hama,
Syria
Miles Lewis
survey
drawings on a
noria at Hama,
by Einar
Fugmann 1935
Thorkild Schiøler,
Roman and Islamic
Water-Lifting Wheels
(Odense U P, Odense
[Denmark] 1973), p 8
Islamic period water wheel near Cordoba, Spain
Markus Huttstein & Peter Delius [eds], Islam Art and Architecture
(Könemann, Cologne 2000), p 211
Qasr Amra, Jordan, c AD 711
Miles Lewis
Qasr Amra, plan
Oleg Grabar, The Fomation of Islamic Art (Yale UP, New Haven [Connecticut] 1973), pl 59
the well at Qasr Amra
Miles Lewis
plan of the works at Qasr Amra, by Schiøler, 1969
Thorkild Schiøler, Roman and Islamic Water-Lifting Wheels (Odense U P, Odense [Denmark] 1973), p 94
the hydraulic works
at Qasr Amra,
existing condition
and reconstruction
by Schiøler.
Thorkild Schiøler, Roman
and Islamic Water-Lifting
Wheels (Odense U P,
Odense [Denmark] 1973),
pp 92, 94
12th century
saqiya
E L Newhouse [ed],
The Builders: Marvels
of Engineering
(National Geographic
Society, Washington
1992), p 49
bucket water
wheel, from
Cesariano’s
16th century
edition of
Vitruvius
Vitruvius, De
Architectura, per
Jocundum
Castigatior factus
con figuris …
Venice 1511, fol
100v, p 45
water raising
machines, by
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci, Codex
Atlanticus, fol 7r
complex pump
system for raising
water and powering
a mill, Renaissance
period
Francesco di Giorgio,
Codicetto, fol 151r
the water screw, or
Archimedean screw pump
from the edition of
Vitruvius by Fra
Giocondo, Venice 1511,
and according to Cresy
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio [translated M H
Morgan], The Ten Books on
Architecture (Dover, New York 1960
[1916]), p 296
Edward Cresy, An Encyclopædia of
Civil Engineering, Historical,
Theoretical, and Practical (2 vols in 1,
Longman Brown, London 1847), pp
1168, 1167
the Archimidean screw pump in Egypt: carpenter fitting flanges; in use by a farmer
E L Newhouse [ed], The Builders: Marvels of Engineering (National Geographic Society, Washington 1992), p 49
rainwater collection at the House of the Faun, Pompeii
Adam, Roman Building p 236
putative water filtration plant, Choqa
Zanbil, Iran, C13th BC: the intake
Miles Lewis
water filtration plant,
Choqa Zanbil: the tank
Miles Lewis
model of
the Choqa
Zanbil
water
filtration
plant
Haft
Teppah
museum
Miles Lewis
reservoir at Choga Zanbil: drawings by Ghirshman
R Ghirshman et al, Tchoga-Zanbil (Der-Untash) Volume II Temenos, temples, palais, Tombes [Memoires
of the Mission Archéologique en Iran, vol xl] (Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner, Paris 1968), fig 38
the supposed filtration process at Choqa Zanbil
Miles Lewis
Assyrian relief showing a palace, probably Nineveh, with a garden
watered by an aqueduct on pointed corbelled arches
Reade, Assyrian Sculpture, p 36
Remains of one of Sennacherib's aqueducts at Jerwan, between Khinnis and Nineveh
Reade, Assyrian Sculpture, p 36
method of
calculating the
slope of a tunnel
anonymous: after
Taccola, De ingeneis
I-II), BCNF, Ms Palat
767, p 22
Evpalinos tunnel, Samos, by Eupalinos of Megara, 524 BC:
view in the upper tunnel and view down to lower tunnel
Miles Lewis
syphon of the citadel, Pergamon, 180 BC
G E Sandström, Man the Builder (New York 1975 [1970]), p 82
what is the major technical problem
in a syphon line like this?
pipe from the Pergamon syphon
Fatih Cimok, Pergamum (Istanbul 2001 [1993]), p 17
ballast pipe from Pontius Pilate's syphon line at Jerusalem
Sandström, Man the Builder, p 80
upward syphon, Renaissance period
Francesco di Giorgio, Opusculum, fol 58r, after Taccola, De Ingeneis, III-IV
Roman aqueduct & tunnel
J G Landels, Engineering in the Ancient World (Berkeley [California] 1978), p 40
Appius Claudius, Rome, 313 BC
Pannell, Man the Builder, p 181
Roman multi-level aqueducts, reconstruction
E L Newhouse [ed], The Builders: Marvels of Engineering
(National Geographic Society, Washington 1992), p 26
remains of aqueducts Aqua Claudia and Aqua Anio Novus, integrated
into the Aurelian Wall as a gate in 271 AD; aqueduct diagram
Wikipedia
section of the Aqua Marcia
section of the aqueduct at Treslay
Knight, Dictionary of Mechanics, I, p 129; Adam, Roman Building, pp 247, 248
Aqueduct of Valens, Constantinople, C4th
Miles Lewis
aqueduct at Segovia, Spain, AD early C1st & early C2nd
Frank Sear
aqueduct at Segovia: elevation and plan
E H Knight, The Practical Dictionary of Mechanics (3 vols, Cassell, Petter,
Galpin, London 1877-84), I, p 129
aqueduct at Aspendos, Turkey, AD C3rd
Miles Lewis
aqueduct, Aspendos
ballast pipe connection; pressure tower
Miles Lewis; Axel Boëthius & J B Ward-Perkins, Etruscan and Roman Architecture
(Penguin, Harmondsworth [Middlesex] 1970), pl 213
aqueduct & syphon, Lyons, France
Adam, Roman Building, p 246. See also Knight, Dictionary of Mechanics, I, p 129
cross-section of the emissarium of Lake Nemi
Adam, Roman Building, p 244
Pont-du-Gard, Nîmes, France, shortly BC: tunnel opening in the hillside.
Frank Sear
Pont-du-Gard
Frank Sear
Pont du Gard, from above
Henri Stierlin, Notre Histoire Lue du Ciel:
Monuments de l'Antiquité (Paris 2005), no page
Pont-du-Gard:
open portion of the
channel; intact
covering
Frank Sear
aqueduct at Oaxaca, Mexico, now disused
Miles Lewis
aqueduct at Morelia, Mexico, 1785-8: view & detail of channel
Miles Lewis
a qanat in plan and section
Beazley & Harverson, Living with the Desert, p 35
vents of the Roman protoqanat at Palmyra, Syria
Miles Lewis
Moorish aqueduct
at Madînat alZahrâ’, Spain, 10th
century
Marianne Barrucand & Achim
Bednorz, Moorish Architecture in
Andalusia (Taschen, Köln 1992),
p 69
M Gómes-Moreno, Arté Mudéjar
Tóledano (Madrid 1916)
qanat as used in Al-Andalus [Andalusia], Spain, from the early middle ages
Flon, World Atlas of Archaeology, p 156
a qanat in section, plus a cross-section of a stepped inspection shaft
Sandström, Man the Builder, p 82
construction of a qanat
Lewis, Architectura, p 98
aerial view of
the qanats
leading to
Firuzabad, Iran
E L Newhouse [ed], The
Builders: Marvels of
Engineering (National
Geographic Society,
Washington 1992), p 48
Afghanistan:
diagram of
Karez
irrigation
system
Sunday Age, 28
October 2001, p 12
plan and section of the abbey and lakes of the Cistercian
abbey of Mortemer, France, begun C12th
Jean-Baptiste Vincent, ‘L’Abbaye de Mortemer (Eure): Implantation et Architecture’, in Dossiers
d’Archéologie, no 340, July-August 2010, ‘Abbayes Cisterciennes’, p 27
plan of
the abbey
of
Mortemer
Vincent,
‘L’Abbaye de
Mortemer’ p 29
plan and sections of the tunnel junction at Mortemer
Vincent, ‘L’Abbaye de Mortemer’ p 29
pipes & reservoirs
Roman
period terra
cotta pipes
at Corinth,
Greece
B H Hill,
‘Excavations at
Corinth 1926’,
American Journal of
Archaeology, XXXI,
1 (January-March
1927), p 93
examples of stone
ballast pipes
Laodicea, Turkey;
Palmyra, Syria
Fatih Cimok, A Guide to the
Seven Churches (Istanbul 2003
[1998]), p 93; Miles Lewis
stone ballast pipes, Palmyra
Miles Lewis
terra cotta
pipes with a
stone
connector,
Temple of
Allat,
Palmyra,
Syria
Miles Lewis
stone
connectors at
the Agora,
Izmir, Turkey,
for a vertical
vent, and
for a horizontal
pipe joint
Miles Lewis
stone siphon, Gades Aqueduct, Spain
Ignacio González-Tascón, I B Cardiel & Isabel Velázquez, 'The Organization of Building Work
and Construction of Siphons in Roman Aqueducts in Hispania', in Malcolm Dunkeld et al [eds], Proceedings of
the Second International Congress on Construction History (3 vols, Cambridge 2006), II, p 1308
ceramic pipe of the Almuñécar aqueduct, Spain
Ignacio González-Tascón, I B Cardiel & Isabel Velázquez, 'The Organization of Building Work and
Construction of Siphons in Roman Aqueducts in Hispania', in Malcolm Dunkeld et al [eds], Proceedings
of the Second International Congress on Construction History (3 vols, Cambridge 2006), II, p 1309
part of a pipe that supplied water to the Greek colony of
Apollonia, Bulgaria, probably C4th-C2nd BC. British Museum
Miles Lewis
Pont-du-Gard, Nîmes: castellum divisorium or circular distributor basin
Frank Sear
plan of the castellum divisorium at Nîmes
Adam, Roman Building, p 253
plan of the water channels and cisterns in Alexandria, Egypt
Judith McKenzie, The Architecture of Alexandria and Egypt c. 300 BC to AD 700 (New
Haven [Connecticut] 2007), p 25
the Piscina Mirabile underground reservoir at Misenum
[today's Bacoli], Italy, Augustan period
Adam, Roman Building, p 250
piscinae liminariae or settling chambers, where
the Aqua Virgo enters the Pincio in Rome
L Canina, Gli Edifizi di Roma Antica, IV, pl ccxxxi, fig 6
Jere Batan cistern, Istanbul
Paşanınyeri on Flickr,
pipes from the Sebasteion or Augusteum, Aphrodisias, Turkey, AD C1st
Miles Lewis
pipeline at the Baths
of Scholastica,
Ephesus, Turkey, c
AD 100
Miles Lewis
terra cotta pipes, Musée Rolin, Autun, France
Miles Lewis
Marble water conduit,
Beyazit, Istanbul, ?C4th:
Archaeological Museum,
Istanbul, Inv 91.4T
Miles Lewis
the manufacture of stone pipes
Fundación Juanelo Turriano, Los Veintiún Libros de los Ingenios
y las Máqinas de Juanelo Turriano, libro V (Madrid 1996)
marble water conduit intersection, Beyazit, Istanbul, ?C4th,
Archaeological Museum, Istanbul, Inv 91.3T
three-way pipe junction block (?limestone) at the Arkadiane,
Ephesus, rebuilt c AD 400
Miles Lewis
pipes illustrated by Cesariano in the 16th century
Cesare Cesariano, Di Luce Vitruvio Pollione Libri Dece Traducti de Latino in Vulgare
... (Da Ponte, Como 1521), pla CXVIr. XXXVIIIv. CXXXXv
water fountain or standpipe at Pompeii
Frank Sear
pipes laid on street walls at Herculaneum
Frank Sear
Roman lead pipes with inscriptions: Musée Rolin, Autun, France
AD C1st, British Museum. GR 1856.12-26.1110
Miles Lewis
Roman
lead pipe
fabrication
Landels,
Engineering in
the Ancient
World, p 43;
Adam, Roman
Building, p 253
Roman lead pipes, lead water pipes and stopcocks from the Cornelian
aqueduct at Termini Imerese: Archaeological Museum, Palermo, Italy
junction with spigots; end view of a pipe showing the seamed joint
Miles Lewis
bronze stopcocks,
from Humayma,
Jordan
from Oplontis (Torre
Annunziata,) AD C1st
(with traces of the
lead water supply
pipe to which it was
attached) British
Museum GR 1856.
12-26.864
Burton MacDonald, Russell
Adams & Piotr Bienkowski
[eds], The Archaeology of
Jordan (Sheffield, Sheffield
Academic Press, 2001), p
610; Miles Lewis
bronze pump from the Antiquario Communale, Rome,
restoration by T Schiøler
Richard J B Stein, 'Roman Wooden Force Pumps: Use and Performance', in J-P Brun
& J-L Fiches [eds], Énergie Hydraulique et Machines Élévatices d'Eau durant l'Antiquite
[Actes du Colloque International] (Centre Jean Bérard, Naples 2007), p 7
principle
of the
force
pump
Stein, 'Roman
Wooden Force
Pumps’, p 11
the block of the Benfeld pump: wood with lead liners
Stein, 'Roman Wooden Force Pumps’, p 9
bronze double action water pump. Roman, probably AD C3rd, from Bolsena. British Museum GR 1892.5-17.1
Miles Lewis
diagram of the Bolsena pump
action of a lift pump
G M Hobbs & Arthur Bateman, ‘Elementary Science, Sanitary and Heating Materials’, in C B Ball et al,
Sanitary, Heating, and Ventilation Engineering (4 vols, American Technical Society, Chicago 1924), I, p 46
the water
ram
G M Hobbs & Arthur
Bateman, ‘Elementary
Science, Sanitary and
Heating Materials’, in C B
Ball et al, Sanitary,
Heating, and Ventilation
Engineering (4 vols,
American Technical
Society, Chicago 1924), I,
pp 52, 51
boring wooden
pipes, C16th
woodcut
Pannell, Man the Builder, p 187
bored wooden pipes from Southampton, England, and, Brisbane,
Australia (from an ironbark log, 150 mm internal diameter)
Pannell, Man the Builder, p 187.
J G Steele, Brisbane Town in Convict Days, 1824-1842 (St Lucia [Queensland] 1975), fig 58
iron pipe junction
collar, New
Bridge St, London
British Museum
PRB 1961.5-7.1,
and diagram
Miles Lewis
wood stave pipe, Sewell, Chile
Miles Lewis
hydraulic lead
pipe press
G M Hobbs & Arthur
Bateman, ‘Elementary
Science, Sanitary and
Heating Materials’, in C
B Ball et al, Sanitary,
Heating, and Ventilation
Engineering (4 vols,
American Technical
Society, Chicago 1924),
I, p 64
modern sanitation
Sir John Harrington's
water closet, 1561
Kilroy, The Compleat Loo, p 20
pan closet, C18th
Kilroy, The Compleat Loo, p 22
Joseph Bramah's Closet, patented 1778
(improving Alexander Cummings's of 1775)
[Kilroy, The Compleat Loo, p 22
Lambert's selfacting water
closet, c 1851
from a brochure, c 1851
nineteenth century water closets
J A Ewing, 'Sewerage', in Encyclopædia Britannica (9th ed, Edinburgh 1886), XXI, pp 711-18
Jennings's valve
closet (from an
advertisement)
Kilroy, The Compleat Loo, p 30
Doulton & Co 'washout closet, 1887;
Simplicitas' washdown closet
Calloway, Elements of Style, p 264;
Graves, Tiles and Tilework, p 123
nineteenth century water closets
W P Gerhard, House Drainage and Sanitary Plumbing (1902)
early twentieth century water closets
Gerhard, House Drainage
pumping out a cesspool, London, 1861
Kilroy, The Compleat Loo, p 26
cesspool overflowing under house
T P Teale, Dangers to Health: a Pictorial Guide to Domestic
Sanitary Defects (2nd ed, London 1879), pl XXXII.
Moule's patent earth closet: the manual version
Jeremy Salmond, Old New Zealand Houses 1800-1940 (Auckland 1986), p 144
Moule's closet, automatic version
Kilroy, The Compleat Loo, p 51
Moule's patent
earth closet:
diagrams
The Technical Educator (4 vols,
London, no date [c 1870]), III, p
342
Liddiard's double earth closet for schools
Kilroy, The Compleat Loo, p 50
advertisement for
Moule’s patent
earth closets,
pull-up and selfacting, 1927
Metal Agencies Co, Ltd.,
Bristol, Catalogue No. 46
(Metal Agencies, Bristol
1927), p 390
the dry closet as
suggested by
Henry Ruttan,
USA
I D Smead, Ventilation and
Warming of Buildings (Toledo
[Ohio] 1889), p 62
single
chamber
septic tank
Australia, Department of
Labour and National
Service, Industrial
Training Division,
Sanitary Plumbing and
Water Supply [Technical
Publication No 14]
(Melbourne 1945), p 127
closed cesspool
International Library of Technology. Masonry, Carpentry, Joinery (International Textbook
Company, Scranton [Pennsylvania] 1907), ‘Masonry’, p 13