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Transcript
PLANETS
LO: I will identify the known planets of the solar system.
SOLAR SYSTEM: all of the planets, moons, comets, and
rocks that travel around the Sun
GALAXY: giant collection of gas, dust, and trillions of
stars
Milky Way: our galaxy
Planet Sizes
PLANETS
LO: I will identify the known planets of the solar system.
Universe: "the whole thing"
huge space that contains all of the
matter & energy in existence
Contains: stars, planets, moons, meteors, asteroids, comets, space
Formed from clouds of ice, gas, and dust
Space never ends
Our solar system makes up a very small part of universe
Closest star to our solar system is the sun
SOLAR SYSTEM: all of the planets, moons, comets, and
rocks that travel around the Sun
GALAXY: giant collection of gas, dust, and trillions of
stars
Milky Way: our galaxy
MERCURY
closest to the Sun
circles Sun faster than other planets
36 million miles from sun
Temp: day 6450 F, night 2000 F below zero
looks like Moon, craters & volcanos
no moons of its own
tiny 3,000 miles in diameter
revolves around sun fast: 88 days = 1 year on Earth
rotates very slow: 1 day = 59 Earth days
crater: hole caused by an object hitting the surface of a planet or
moon
VENUS
closest planet to Earth,
26 million miles away
brightest planet in our sky
67 million miles from Sun
7,500 miles diameter
surrounded by thick cold clouds
most atmosphere is carbon dioxide
7000 F
spins slowly backwards - takes 243 days for 1 rotation
225 days to circle Sun
very plain, no mountains and almost no water
named for Roman goddess of beauty although it's not pretty
does not have a moon
EARTH: THE BLUE PLANET
3/4 surface covered with
water
Pacific Ocean is larger than
all the land
land forms 7 great masses, continents
continents are slowly drifting
has atmosphere containing nitrogen, oxygen, & carbon dioxide
people need oxygen to breathe, plants need carbon dioxide to
breathe
4.6 billion years old
revolves around Sun once in 365 days
93 million miles from Sun
rotates counter-clockwise once in 24 hours
7,926 miles in diameter; medium sized
only planet with life as we know it
MARS: THE RED PLANET
covered with red rocks; dust
storms give it color
1 day is 1/2 hour longer than
Earth
Martian year = 2 Earth years
2 tiny moons
141.5 mil. miles from Sun
1500 F below zero at night, 00 F in day
4,215 miles in diameter, smaller than Earth
a mountain on Mars is 3 times taller than tallest one on Earth
giant canyon runs for thousands of miles
evidence of places where long rivers once flowed
atmosphere like Earth's; carbon dioxide and oxygen; air too thin
for us to breathe
spacecraft landed in 1970's and 1997; soil samples showed
there was no life as we know it on Earth
JUPITER THE GIANT
largest planet 88,700 in diameter
1,300 Earth's could fit inside Jupiter
very bright, shines white light & can be seen in southern night sky
just before/after midnight
full of colors, has yellow, brown, & red clouds
huge red spot just below equator is raging lightening & wind storm
twice the size of Earth
has many moons
1 day on Earth = 10 hours on Jupiter
1 year on Jupiter = 12 years on Earth
483.3 miles from Sun yet very hot because heat comes from inside
the planet
SATURN
famous for its bright, oval rings
hundreds of rings packed closely together
rings are chunks of ice & rock
75,000 miles in diameter, huge
very light, could float in the ocean
made of hot gases with thick core of solid matter
Saturn tilts like Earth so has 4 seasons
1 day on Saturn = 10 hours on Earth
1 year on Saturn = 29 1/2 Earth years
886,000,000 miles from Sun
bad weather all of the time, storms give it a yellow/tan color
in one place there is bright, pink spot, a storm
at least 23 moons circle Saturn
one moon is pitch black on one side and snow white on other
another moon, Titan, is second biggest moon
URANUS
first seen by telescope in 1781
farthest planet seen with naked eye
1,778,000,000 miles from Sun
very cold, never more than 3100 F below zero
1 Uranus year = 84 Earth years
1 Uranus day = 11 hours on Earth
1970's was discovered that Uranus has rings like Saturn, nine a
visible
30,900 miles in diameter, 4 times larger than Earth
Uranus lies on its side, spinning like a bowling ball
speeds up and slows down due to Neptune's gravitational pull o
it
has 15 moons orbiting around its center, like spokes on a wheel
NEPTUNE
discovered in 1846, 2 billion miles from Sun
named for ancient god of the seas
has 2 main rings & 3 smaller rings
cannot be seen with the naked eye
blue-green color, details of surface are not visible
Neptune's gravitational pull on Uranus causes Uranus to speed
up and slow down
32,900 miles in diameter, same size as Uranus
8 moons and many "moonlets" in Neptune's rings
1 day on Neptune = 16 Earth hours
1 year on Neptune = 165 Earth years
freezing cold, warmest day is 3600 F below zero
frozen ammonia clouds circle planet
beneath clouds, poison gases fill atmosphere
constant violent storms
Voyager 11 spacecraft passed by and took pictures
IS PLUTO A PLANET?
"dwarf-planet"
1 billion miles past Neptune
3,660,000,000 miles from Sun; no other planet is as far from
Sun
Pluto found in 1930 because it was pulling Neptune out of
orbit
can only guess what it's like
must be ice cold with solid, dense center, may have one moon
think it's 2,000 miles in diameter, smallest planet & is why we
now call it a dwarf planet
takes 248 Earth years for Pluto to orbit once around the Sun
1 day = 6 Earth days
off center orbit sometimes brings Pluto closer to Sun than
Neptune
INNER PLANETS: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and
Mars
Smaller and made of mostly rock and iron
OUTER PLANETS: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus,
and Neptune
Larger and made mostly of hydrogen, helium
and ice
SATURN
famous for its bright, oval rings
hundreds of rings packed closely together
rings are chunks of ice & rock
75,000 miles in diameter, huge
very light, could float in the ocean
made of hot gases with thick core of solid matter
Saturn tilts like Earth so has 4 seasons
1 day on Saturn = 10 hours on Earth
1 year on Saturn = 29 1/2 Earth years
886,000,000 miles from Sun
bad weather all of the time, storms give it a yellow/tan color
in one place there is bright, pink spot, a storm
at least 23 moons circle Saturn
one moon is pitch black on one side and snow white on other
another moon, Titan, is second biggest moon
MERCURY
closest to the Sun
circles Sun faster than other planets
36 million miles from sun
Temp: day 6450 F, night 2000 F below zero
looks like Moon, craters & volcanos
no moons of its own
tiny 3,000 miles in diameter
revolves around sun fast: 88 days = 1 year on Earth
rotates very slow: 1 day = 59 Earth days
crater: hole caused by an object hitting the surface of a planet or
moon
VENUS
closest planet to Earth,
26 million miles away
brightest planet in our sky
67 million miles from Sun
7,500 miles diameter
surrounded by thick cold clouds
most atmosphere is carbon dioxide
7000 F
spins slowly backwards - takes 243 days for 1 rotation
225 days to circle Sun
very plain, no mountains and almost no water
named for Roman goddess of beauty although it's not pretty
does not have a moon
EARTH: THE BLUE PLANET
3/4 surface covered with
water
Pacific Ocean is larger than
all the land
land forms 7 great masses, continents
continents are slowly drifting
has atmosphere containing nitrogen, oxygen, & carbon dioxide
people need oxygen to breathe, plants need carbon dioxide to
breathe
4.6 billion years old
revolves around Sun once in 365 days
93 million miles from Sun
rotates counter-clockwise once in 24 hours
7,926 miles in diameter; medium sized
only planet with life as we know it
MARS: THE RED PLANET
covered with red rocks; dust
storms give it color
1 day is 1/2 hour longer than
Earth
Martian year = 2 Earth years
2 tiny moons
141.5 mil. miles from Sun
1500 F below zero at night, 00 F in day
4,215 miles in diameter, smaller than Earth
a mountain on Mars is 3 times taller than tallest one on Earth
giant canyon runs for thousands of miles
evidence of places where long rivers once flowed
atmosphere like Earth's; carbon dioxide and oxygen; air too thin
for us to breathe
spacecraft landed in 1970's and 1997; soil samples showed
there was no life as we know it on Earth
Jupiter's Spot
JUPITER THE GIANT
largest planet 88,700 in diameter
1,300 Earth's could fit inside Jupiter
very bright, shines white light & can be seen in southern night sky
just before/after midnight
full of colors, has yellow, brown, & red clouds
huge red spot just below equator is raging lightening & wind storm
twice the size of Earth
has many moons
1 day on Earth = 10 hours on Jupiter
1 year on Jupiter = 12 years on Earth
483.3 miles from Sun yet very hot because heat comes from inside
the planet
URANUS
first seen by telescope in 1781
farthest planet seen with naked eye
1,778,000,000 miles from Sun
very cold, never more than 3100 F below zero
1 Uranus year = 84 Earth years
1 Uranus day = 11 hours on Earth
1970's was discovered that Uranus has rings like Saturn, nine a
visible
30,900 miles in diameter, 4 times larger than Earth
Uranus lies on its side, spinning like a bowling ball
speeds up and slows down due to Neptune's gravitational pull o
it
has 15 moons orbiting around its center, like spokes on a wheel
NEPTUNE
discovered in 1846, 2 billion miles from Sun
named for ancient god of the seas
has 2 main rings & 3 smaller rings
cannot be seen with the naked eye
blue-green color, details of surface are not visible
Neptune's gravitational pull on Uranus causes Uranus to speed
up and slow down
32,900 miles in diameter, same size as Uranus
8 moons and many "moonlets" in Neptune's rings
1 day on Neptune = 16 Earth hours
1 year on Neptune = 165 Earth years
freezing cold, warmest day is 3600 F below zero
frozen ammonia clouds circle planet
beneath clouds, poison gases fill atmosphere
constant violent storms
Voyager 11 spacecraft passed by and took pictures
IS PLUTO A PLANET?
"dwarf-planet"
1 billion miles past Neptune
3,660,000,000 miles from Sun; no other planet is as far from
Sun
Pluto found in 1930 because it was pulling Neptune out of
orbit
can only guess what it's like
must be ice cold with solid, dense center, may have one moon
think it's 2,000 miles in diameter, smallest planet & is why we
now call it a dwarf planet
takes 248 Earth years for Pluto to orbit once around the Sun
1 day = 6 Earth days
off center orbit sometimes brings Pluto closer to Sun than
Neptune
INNER PLANETS: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and
Mars
Smaller and made of mostly rock and iron
OUTER PLANETS: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus,
and Neptune
Larger and made mostly of hydrogen, helium
and ice