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Inorganic/Organic Chemistry Study Guide
Define the following keyterms:
anion
atom
covalent bond
electron
ionic bond
oxidation
valence electrons
amino acid
condensation
glycogen
lipid
nucleotide
protein
starch
catalyst
coenzyme
kinetic energy
potential energy
hydrophobic
hydrophilic
glycogen
monosaccharide
fatty acid
glycerol
polysaccharide
primary structure
atomic mass
hydrogen bond
proton
amino group
glucose
phosphate group
tertiary structure
energy
thermodynamics
van der Waals interactions
condensation reaction
prosthetic group
secondary structure
cation
ion
reduction
carotenoid
hydrocarbon
phospholipid
steroid
enzyme
substrate
hydrolysis
peptide bond
nucleic acid
active site
Questions:
1. Explain how valence electrons affect the chemical properties of an atom.
2. Describe the nature and characteristics of the three main types of chemical bonds.
3. What are oxidation and reduction? How are “redox” reactions involved in the
transfer of energy in living systems?
4. What are the principal molecular components of each of the four major
macromolecules in organisms?
5. Using labeled diagrams, explain how these components polymerize to form
macromolecules.
6. Describe the compositions, characteristics, and biological functions of each of the
following:
a. Storage polysaccharides and structural polysaccharides
b. Neutral fats, phospholipids, and steroids
c. Proteins having different levels of organization
d. RNA and DNA
7. What is energy of activation? Explain how enzymes enable intracellular chemical
reactions by lowering energy of activation?
Essays:
1. Enzymes are biological catalysts.
a. Relate the chemical structure of an enzyme to its specificity and catalytic
activity.
b. Design a quantitative experiment to investigate the influence of pH or
temperature on the activity of an enzyme.
c. Describe what information concerning the structure of an enzyme could be
inferred from your experiment.
2. The unique properties (characteristics) of water make life possible on Earth.
Select three properties of water and:
a. for each property, identify and define the property and explain it in terms
of the physical/chemical nature of water.
b. for each property, describe one example of how the property affects the
functioning of living organisms.
3. Discuss the biological importance of each of the following organic compounds in
relation to cellular structure and function in plants and animals.
a. Carbohydrates
b. Proteins
c. Lipids
d. Nucleic acids
.
4. Describe the chemical compositions and configuration of enzymes
and discuss the factors that modify enzyme structure and/or function.