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Subatomic Particles
• Protons and electrons are the only particles that
have a charge.
• Protons and neutrons have essentially the same
• The mass of an electron is so small we ignore it.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Symbols of Elements
Elements are symbolized by one or two letters.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Symbols of Elements
All atoms of the same element have the same
number of protons, which is called the atomic
number, Z.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Symbols of Elements
The mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu)
is the total number of protons and neutrons in
the atom.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
• Isotopes are atoms of the same element with
different masses.
• Isotopes have different numbers of neutrons.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Atomic Mass
Atomic and molecular
masses can be
measured with great
accuracy using a mass
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Average Mass
• Because in the real world we use large amounts of
atoms and molecules, we use average masses in
• Average mass is calculated from the isotopes of an
element weighted by their relative abundances.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
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