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```Space
Exploration
Space Travel
Write down as many things as you can think of
that a space explorer would need to survive
in space.
True/False
There is no gravity in space.
Mass and weight are the same.
F
F
Living in space has no effect on the human
body.
F
History of Space Travel
Sir Isaac Newton
Important
fact!
Sir Isaac Newton - contributed to space
exploration by defining and describing gravity
History of Space Travel
Johannes Kepler
Important
fact!
Johannes Kepler - Developed the laws of
planetary motion describing how planets
move in space.
Solar System Models
• To study and prepare for space, models are
useful tools.
• However, many models have limitations.
Find the limitations of these Models
Correct distances and sizes of the sun and planets
Find the limitations of these Models
True size of the sun and planets and distances
How can this model be used to help
plan space trips?
To estimate distance, travel time and fuel costs
Why do scientists use full size models?
• to practice in-flight procedures
• to familiarize the crew with emergency
procedures
• to maximize safety
• save the expense of a real mission
vocabulary
word!
• gravity – the force of attraction between
objects due to their masses and the distance
between them.
• There is less gravity in space because the
distance to a moon or planet is larger.
vocabulary
word!
• microgravity – small amount of gravity felt in
space.
• When orbiting around a planet, you are in a
constant state of free fall
• Microgravity around earth is 1x10-6 gravity
• Microgravity causes muscle and bone loss
• Also causes fluids to form balls
– Can make drinking, showering and sweating difficult
vocabulary
word!
• weightlessness – the apparent loss of weight
of an object that is in free fall.
• Gravity does exist on a spacecraft but,
because the shuttle is in a constant state of
free fall around the Earth, everything
maintains a weightless state.
vocabulary
word!
• escape velocity– the minimum speed needed
for an object to "break free" from the
gravitational attraction of a massive body.
• The escape velocity from earth is about
40,270 km/h (25,020 mph).
vocabulary
word!
• orbital velocity– the average speed needed to
orbit a massive body in space.
• Orbital velocity is different for each planet.
getting there and back
•
•
•
•
the forces of launch
the temperatures of re-entry
landing
communication
launch
• Any spacecraft leaving Earth must overcome
gravity to reach space
• Launch can create very strong forces that act
against the astronauts.
• Manned spacecraft have to accelerate slow
enough to keep the astronauts safe
launch
re-entry
• For re-entry, the angle of the spacecraft must
be just right
– The steeper the angle, the hotter the shuttle gets
– If the angle is too shallow, the craft can bounce
back into space
• A heat shield protects the astronauts from the
1,650 degree temperature
shuttle heat shield
landing
• Spacecraft need to be able to land on Earth or
other planets/moons without crashing
– parachutes
– land in water
– thrusters to slow down
landing
communication
• Astronauts need to be able to communicate with
each other and with ground control on Earth
– intercom system on the craft
– radio waves from space to Earth
Fun Fact
• Cell phones do not work in space
communication
notes
• Create a chart like to record this information.
conditions in space
• Conditions in space affect the human body
much differently than conditions on Earth do.
– weightlessness
– oxygen and air pressure
– waste management
– food and drink
weightlessness
• If you drop an apple on Earth falls at 1g. If an
astronaut on the space station drops an apple, it
falls too. It just doesn't look like it's falling. That's
because they're all falling together: the apple, the
astronaut and the station. But they're not falling
towards Earth, they're falling around it. Because
they're all falling at the same rate, objects inside
of the station appear to float in a state we call
"zero gravity" (0g), or more accurately
microgravity (1x10-6 g.)
weightlessness
• While in space, weightlessness can cause bone
and muscle loss.
• Bone density can decrease by .6% to 5% each
month.
• Astronauts must exercise in space to keep the
heart, bones and muscles healthy.
weightlessness
• To prepare for the feeling of weightlessness,
astronauts train on an airplane called the
vomit comet.
weightlessness
Astronauts must exercise
in space to keep the
heart, bones and muscles
healthy.
to reduce bone and
muscle loss.
notes
• Create a chart like to record this information.
• The sun produces large amounts of solar
• Radiation in space can damage the astronaut’s
DNA.
• Damaged DNA increases the risk of cancer.
• Radiation is especially high during solar flares.
• The shuttles and space station have minimal
• Scientists are trying to develop better
protection so astronauts can stay in space
longer.
notes
• Create a chart like to record this information.
oxygen and air pressure
• Humans cannot breath in space
• Oxygen does exist on other planets but not in
concentrations we can breathe.
• There is also no air pressure so the body
would expand to twice its normal size.
• The heart would also have to work much
harder to get blood around the body.
oxygen and air pressure
• Shuttles and space stations are designed to
provide the correct air pressure.
• An 80% nitrogen, 20% oxygen mixture is also
pumped into the spacecraft.
notes
• Create a chart like to record this information.
food and drink
• All food, water and drinks must be taken up to
space
• There is no space market or organisms in
space to eat.
food and drink
• Food must be packaged for long term storage.
• Much of the food is freeze dried.
• Food must be quick to open and serve and
easy to clean up.
• Drinking is done through straws or zero gravity
cups.
food and drink
notes
• Create a chart like to record this information.
What technology has been developed
to help a human survive and move in
space?
http://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/spacesuits/home/clickable_suit.html#.Vjk
mnCsTB1E
What does a Spacesuit do?
• Creates pressure to force blood around the
body
• Provides oxygen and collects carbon dioxide
• Helps regulate temperature
The Spacesuit Layers
• Multiple layers helps to maintain
temperature
The Spacesuit Backpack
• Provide pure O2 for inhaling and canisters
to collect CO2
Spacesuit Training
• Astronauts train in a pool to lighten the
weight of the suit
• This helps them to move more easily and
notes
• Create a chart like to record this information.
waste management
• Wastes need to be managed carefully in the
limited room on a spacecraft.
– exhaled carbon dioxide
– trash
– restroom
waste management
•
•
•
•
Carbon dioxide is expelled from the craft
Garbage is stored until landing.
Liquid waste is purified and recycled.
Solid waste is dried, compressed and stored
until landing.
waste management
waste management
conserving resources in space
• Every resource that astronauts need must be
launched with them.
• Recycling, reusing or collecting resources is
important.
• Waste water and air are recycled.
conserving resources in space
notes
• Create a chart like to record this information.
Large distances
• Distances between planets and moon can be
huge.
• Can take years/decades to get to some places.
– fuel costs and weight
– time
– Equipment that can handle conditions
– depression can set in
One way to overcome large distances:
vocabulary
word!
slingshot theory - going around another planet
and using it’s gravity to gain speed
– longer trip but takes less time
– can conserve fuel
Draw this in
Slingshot Effect
notes
• Create a chart like to record this information.
Barfing in space:
Sleeping:
Make a pb and j
eating:
screaming in space:
washing clothes
back to Earth:
Mythbusters:
Future of Space Travel
•
•
•
•
Manned trip to the moon
Manned trip to Mars
Manned colonies on Mars
Exploration
Research topics
http://www.nasa.gov/externalflash/HRP_Feature/
•
•
•
•
•
•
spacecraft
space suits
space food and drink
waste management and recycling
living and working in space
long distances
```
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