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Transcript
Biology Wilson
Nova – Evolution Video Series – “Extinction”
Name:_______________________________
pd._____
Date:_____________________
1. Extinction is the __________________________ of a species.
2. ___________________ of all species that have ever been on the face of the Earth have gone extinct.
3. On average a species dies out after __________________________ years of existence
4. Extinction of one species creates _____________________________ for new species
5. A _________________________ a planet wide catastrophe killing off many species, leveling the playing field.
6. A mass extinction 65 million years ago made our very ________________________ possible
7. _____________in the past 500 million years mass extinctions wiped out most of the species alive at the time.
8. 250 million years ago marks the end of the_________________________, called the Permian Extinction.
9. The paleontologist finds ________________________ in the bottom layers (strata) of the Triassic Period.
10. When 1 species dies out in a mass extinction others also die out causing a collapse like a________ __ _____.
11. Empty worlds allow a tremendous amount of evolutionary _____________________________.
12. During the “Age of Dinosaurs”,___________ scurry in the shadows, & were ____________ (shrew-like or rat-like.)
13. Roy Chapman Andrews found 80 million year old dinosaur ___________ & __________in the Gobi desert.
14. Mammals survived by being nearly invisible, and may have had a ___________like modern day marsupials.
15. In the ___ - ___ event 65 mill. years ago a mass extinction, mammals survived in the midst of destruction.
16. The house of cards from the last mass extinction fell again. This time it was the _______________ who fell.
17. 35 mill. years ago mammal evolution produced the 1st true _____________________from earlier primates.
18. 5-6 million years ago the first ______________________________mammals emerged.
19. They began to walk ____________, and some left their________________ in volcanic ash which hardened
20. Lineages branched out, went extinct and one branch evolved into the ancestors of modern humans.
21. Now there are 6 billion humans; we have caused the rate of extinction to soar to ____________ greater than normal.
22. We are the new asteroid bringing about the_______________________________________.
23. In the “empty forest syndrome” a forest appears intact from the outside, but inside the natural
components that maintain the __________________________________ through the system is disrupted.
24. ______ pounds of plant matter can support about ___ pounds of herbivores which can support only ___
pound of carnivores, so healthy carnivores mean a healthy_________________.
25. Today ____________________ _____________________is now the number one cause of extinction.
26. The #2 cause of extinction is ________________ _______________foreign species overwhelm native life.
27. Human came to the Hawaiian island around ________________________.
28. Biological invaders were brought in by ___________________________which displaced native species.
29. Europeans have brought in _______________________________of species.
30. The _____________________________arrived in the U.S. in 1988 it now clogs waterways and consumes
plankton which native plants and animals need to survive.
31. The _____________________________________came to Guam from New Guinea in wheel bases on planes
and on cargo ships during WWI.
32. The snake eats the eggs of native bird species, so __________________________ of Guam’s bird species
were driven to extinction.
33. Scientists call biological invaders __________________________these survive and adapt almost anywhere.
34. Of all the weed species on the earth _________ are the most mobile and the most adaptable
35. Every species that ____________________leaves one less to prop it up in the species “deck of cards”
36. In North Dakota two biological invaders are pitted against each other; they are the __________________
and the_____________________________.
37. In order to fight back against biological invaders we need __________________________.
38. ____________________________is our greatest tool against extinction
39. The ____________________________________of new forms and the _____________________________
of old forms are bound together in the process of evolution.
1. Extinction is the termination of a species.
2. 95-95% of all species that have ever been on the face of the Earth have gone extinct.
3. On average a species dies out after 4 million years of existence
4. Extinction of one species creates opportunities for new species
5. A mass extinction is when a planet wide catastrophe kills off many species – “the playing field is leveled”
6. A mass extinction 65 million years ago made our very existence possible
7. 5 times in he past 500 million years mass extinctions wiped out most of the species alive at the time.
8. 250 million years ago marks the end of the Permian Era – the Permian Extinction
9. The paleontologist finds no fossils in the bottom layers (strata) of the Triassic Period.
10. When one species dies out in a mass extinction others also die out bringing about a collapse like a house of
cards.
11. Mammal-like reptiles looked like a cross between dogs and lizards.
12. Empty worlds allow a tremendous amount of evolutionary diversification.
13. During the “Age of Dinosaurs”, mammals scurry in the shadows, and were small shrew-like or rat-like .
14. Roy Chapman Andrews found 80 million year old dinosaur bones and eggs in the Gobi desert.
15. Mammals survived by being nearly invisible, and the first mammals may have had a pouch like modern day
marsupials.
16. 65 million years ago a mass extinction(K-T event) mammals survive in a landscape of death and destruction.
17. the house of cards which had been built up since the last mass extinction collapsed a gain but this time it
was the dinosaurs who fell the farthest.
18. 35 million years ago mammal evolution produced the first true monkeys or apes from earlier primates.
19. 5-6 million years ago the first human like mammals emerged.
20. They began to walk upright, and some left their footprints in volcanic ash which hardened
21. Lineages branched out, went extinct and one branch evolved into the ancestors of modern humans.
22. Today there are more than 6 billion of us on the planet, and we have caused the rate of extinction to soar
to 100 times greater than normal.
23. We are the new asteroid bringing about the 6th mass extinction.
24 . The empty forest syndrome is when a forest appears intact from the outside , but inside the natural
components that maintain the flow of energy through the system is disrupted
25. Sunshine makes the plants grow, these are eaten by herbivores which in turn are eaten by carnivores.
26. 100 pounds of plant matter can support about 10 pounds of herbivores which can support only 1 pound of
carnivores, so healthy carnivores mean a healthy forest.
27. The Siamese crocodile has been hunted for its skins and is nearly extinct.
28. The cameras placed by he scientists are being stolen or damaged.
29. Today habitat destruction is now the number one cause of extinction.
30. T he number 2 cause of extinction in biological invaders – foreign species that overwhelm the native life.
31. human came to the Hawaiian island around 600 A.D.
32. Scientists are studying a sinkhole on Kauai which shows 10,000 years of Hawaiian evolution
33.. Biological invaders were brought in by native Hawaiians which displaced native species.
34. Europeans have brought in 100s and 100s of species.
35. Evolution has now entered a new mode, something altogether new is happening and it has to do with what
humans do to other evolutionary processes
36. Invasion of Hawaii is a microcosm of what is happening today.
37. The zebra mussel arrived in the U.S. in 1988 it now clogs waterways and consumes plankton which native
plants and animals need to survive. In the past 10 years the U.S. government has spent more than 4 billion
dollars trying to control them
38. Invasive species we carry in are dramatically increasing the extinction of native life.
39. The Brown tree snake came to Guam from New Guinea in the wheel basses on planes and on cargo ships
during WWI eating the eggs of native bird species – 9 of 11 bird species were driven to extinction.
40. The thing that we have done which will be the most visible in the fossil record in a million years is going to
be these biological invasions
41. Scientists call biological invader “Weed Species” these survive and adapt almost anywhere.
42. Of all the weed species on the earth we asre the most mobile and the most adaptable
43. Evryspecies tha disappears leaves one less to prop it up in species “deck of cards”
44. In North Dkota two biological species are pittes againdt each other they are the leafy spurge and the flea
beetle.
45. In order to fight back against biological invaders we need information
46. Knowledge is our greatest tool against extinction
47. The appearance of new forms and the disappearance of old forms are bound together in the process of
evolution.