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Communication Process
Defining Communication
On a sticky note, write down your own definition of
communication. Be as detailed as possible.
With a group, discuss your definitions – what was
different? What was the same?
Together with your group, come up with the BEST
possible definition to share with the class.
The Communication
Process Model
Speaker: the person who begins the
communication interaction by having a
thought or intended message to send to
a listener.
 Who can this be?
 Does it have to be a singular person?
 Does it have to be human?
 Do they have to know who their
audience is before they decide to
Process Model Cont.
Encoding – the process of creating
the message to be transmitted from a
sender to the listener. Converting your
thoughts and ideas into content that
can be transmitted.
The speaker’s decision
Denotation and Connotation (we will
discuss this more on Wednesday)
Process Model Cont.
Message – what is actually communicated or
transmitted to the listener.
 What is the goal of the message? Did you
send the intended message?
 Verbal – the actual words communicated
(words are symbols) – written, spoken, signed
 Nonverbal – how you say it (voice, body
 Which do you think is more believable –
verbal or nonverbal? Best if these match!
Process Model Cont.
Channel: the means by which the
message is communicated. THIS IS
 What are examples of different
types of channels of
 The “break-up” scenario - discuss
why certain channels are better for
certain situations.
Process Model Cont.
Listener – the person or people who
receive the speaker’s message.
Discuss “Frame of Reference” –
this is what affects the way speakers
and listeners communicate
Process Model Cont.
Decoding – how the listener
interprets and processes the message
transmitted by the sender.
Was the intended message received?
What could go wrong here?
Process Model Cont.
Feedback – the message or response
sent from the listener back to the
speaker. Shows understanding and
interpretation of the speaker’s
 Can be verbal or nonverbal
 Can be positive or negative
Process Model Cont.
Situation – the context in which the
communication process occurs.
Time and Place
 Includes physical and social
components (what’s happening in
the world)
Process Model Cont.
Interference – anything that could
impede the process of
External – noises and sounds
 Internal – feelings, emotions,
thoughts of the speaker and/or the