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Transcript
English Manuscript Preparation for
Technical Journal Publication*
劉華光
(Hua-Kuang Liu)
Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering
Department of Electrical Engineering
National Taiwan University
____________________________________
* An invited talk presented to the IEEE Student Chapter at
the National Taiwan University, May 11, 2004
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
1
Importance of Technical Writing
For scientists and engineers-Career success
For technical institutions-Gateway to world reputation
R&D Contributions – Quantity
Quality
Quantity with quality
Leaders or followers
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
2
Technical Writing
Origin:
Research Results
Thoughts
Words-Sentences-Paragraphs-Article
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
3
Word Usage
‘principle’ versus ‘principal’
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Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
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Example
The Principal Investigator of the
research project has discovered the
principle of a new quantum
Computer.
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
5
Word Usage
Other easily mixed word-pairs:
affect/effect; continual/continuous
its/it’s; like/as; etc.
Exercise: Make sentences
using these words.
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
6
Idiomatic English
Things compared must be
comparable.
‘Resonance in pipes were
unlike those in rods.’
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Spelling and Pronunciation
Lead
‘The conductor used a lead rod to
lead the rock band.’
Live
‘Live fishes live in the river’
Logical? No.
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
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Document Preparation
I. Constraints and Style
II. Structure: Beginning, Middle,
and Endings, Transitions,
Details, Depth, and Emphasis
III. Language: Precision, Clarity, Etc.
IV. Illustration: Right Choices & Best Designs
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
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Constraints and Style
Constraints
Stylistic Tools
Audience
Format
Mechanics
Politics
Structure
Language
Illustration
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
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Audience
Audience is always first!
Audience determines words to define,
illustrations to use, and depth to
get into.
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
11
Efficiency of Writing
Purpose is to inform: To communicate
the most amount of information in the
least amount of reading time.
Purpose is to persuade: To presents logical
arguments in the most convincing manner.
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
12
Beginning of Documents
Includes the title, summary, and
introduction.
Prepares readers for understanding the
document’s middle.
Determines whether the audience will
continue reading the document.
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
13
Title
The single most
important phrase of a
document.
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
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Summaries
The summary should let
the audience decide
whether they want to read
the document.
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
15
Writing Summaries
Descriptive; tells what kind of
information in the
document
Informative; presents actual results of
work
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
16
Writing Introductions
What exactly is the work?
Why is the work important?
What is needed to understand the work?
How will the work be presented?
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
17
Writing Middles of Document
What happened
How it happened
Origin of the work
Results of the work
The meaning of the results
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
18
Endings of Documents
1. Analysis of the key results from the
middle (Do not include new results)
2. A future perspective of the work
May 11, 2004
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Conclusion: Four Cs of Communication
Color: Precision, coherence
Clarity: Purity, transparence
Carat: Substance, importance
Cut:
Organization, structure,
style
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
20
An Example
A Preprint Accepted for Publication in Applied Optics
Holographic Creation of Photonic Crystals
Tzu-Min Yan(1) and Hua-Kuang Liu(2)
The Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering
Department of Electrical Engineering
National Taiwan University
No. 1 Sec. 4 Roosevelt Rd. Taipei, Taiwan, 106
(1) [email protected] (2) [email protected]
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
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Abstract
In this paper, we describe the means of
creation of general photonic crystals via
holography with experimental demonstration.
The recordings of periodic variations of
amplitude and phase via the interference of
coherent laser beams in a hologram offer a
natural means for the creation of one- two- or
three-dimensional photonic crystals1,2.
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
22
Abstract (Continued)
Based on the principle of the creation of lattice structure
via the interference of four non-coplanar beams3, we
present a comparative analysis of two different
approaches of creating photonic crystals and use five
numerical simulated lattice structures to illustrate the
differences between these two approaches. We then
used a specific symmetrical optical architecture and
selected the relatively easier approach to realize the
holographic photonic crystals.
OCIS code: 220.4000, 220.4610, 090.2880, 090.7330
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
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Body of the Manuscript
1. Introduction
2. Theoretical Analysis
3. Approach A: Derive primitive lattice constants
of a photonic crystal from physically realizable
predetermined laser wave vectors wavelength
4. Approach B: Determine the four wavevectors
and laser wavelength from primitive lattice
constants of a specific photonic crystal
5. Comparison
6. Experiment
7. Discussion and Conclusion
8. Acknowledgement
Figure Captions, List of Tables, and References
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
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Discussion and Conclusion
We have described an interesting approach with
experiments of using holography to create general
photonic crystals which are not specifically targeted at
certain crystal structures. We have presented a
comparative analysis of two different holographic
approaches of creating photonic crystals. Approach A is
to derive primitive lattice constants of a photonic
crystal from physically realizable predetermined
wavevectors and laser wavelength. Approach B is to
determine the four wavevectors and laser wavelength
from known primitive lattice constants of a specific
photonic crystal. In the analysis, four non-coplanar
beams are assumed for the formation of interference
pattern of the photonic crystals.
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
25
Discussion and Conclusion (Cont’d)
We have used five numerical examples to illustrate the
creation of crystal. We have shown that approach A is
practical in realizing an infinite number of photonic
crystals with no specific names; approach B may be
used to make specific photonic crystals but is more
difficult to realize due to experimental limitations.
From this comparison, we conclude that approach A
may be adopted to create the photonic crystals in
general if a convenient optical architecture can be
found to realize the process. We have found such
architecture and presented experimental results of 2D
and 3D photonic crystals created in the optical system.
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
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Discussion and Conclusion (Cont’d)
From the experiments, we have found that the optical system used
has several advantages and constraints.
The advantages include single-step process and flexibility in the
selection of lasers and recording media for various photonic crystals.
Since the optical system is symmetrical, the beams are
approximately of the same path length, there is no stringent
requirement on the coherence length of the laser source. This implies
that we can essentially use almost any laser source to create the
photonic crystals. And this further means that we can make
photonic crystals using long or short wavelength lasers and create
photonic crystals on different materials for different refractive index
contrast. The laser diode that we used has a very long coherent
length of over 2 meters. But this is not really necessary. A pulsed
laser with a coherent length of a few centimeters may also be used.
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
27
Discussion and Conclusion (Cont’d)
There are several constraints. Though it seems that we
can make an infinite number of photonic crystals, yet
we can not make all kinds of photonic crystals due to
the restriction of the geometrical configuration of the
architecture. The beams are slightly expanded and then
focused down to a spot of limited size. The total area
and uniformity of the photonic crystals are limited
accordingly. The assumption of plane wave input of the
beams is not totally valid in the experiment. Also, the
assumption of zero phase angle difference between the
beams may also be affected by the optical components
that the beams traveled through.
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
28
Discussion and Conclusion (Cont’d)
Other factors in the experiment include the polarization and
uniformity of the array generator. The polarization of all the
beams is nearly preserved in this system if we started with
vertically polarized beam and it is not affected by the optical
components in the path of propagation. The slight non-uniformly
of a few percents across the aperture array will only affect the
contrast of the cells of the photonic crystals. The quality of the
components in the system may also cause distortions and nonuniformity. Finally, since the 3D photonic crystals are produced
by oppositely traveling beams, the substrate of the film must be
transparent to the beam. As a result, the beam that first goes
through the substrate will have the influence of diffraction which
has not been considered in the theoretical discussions.
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
29
Discussion and Conclusion (Cont’d)
Some of the constraints, especially the basic
assumption in the analysis of uniform plane
wave and the zero phase angle difference among
the laser beams may be used to explain the
errors between theoretical and experimental
data on the primitive lattice constants.
Nevertheless, based on the comparison of the
experimental results with the theoretical
calculations, we have shown that the constraints
considered above do not affect the fact that the
type of the specific symmetric system presented
is effective in creating general photonic crystals.
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
30
A Few Useful Tips (or Tricks)
Choose an appropriate journal.
Comply with format.
Write cover letter.
Interact with editor.
Revise and respond to reviewers.
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
31
Categories of Documents
Memos, Letters, E-mails
Concept Papers, Proposals
Reports, Journal Articles
Job Search Documents
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
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Document Preparation
I. Constraints and Style
II. Structure: Beginning, Middle,
and Endings, Transitions,
Details, Depth, and Emphasis
III. Language: Precision, Clarity, Etc.
IV. Illustration: Right Choices & Best Designs
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
33
Feedback from a Former Student
“Dear Prof. Liu:
The Class I took last semester from
you actually helped me a lot to
improve presentation skills and
taught me the correct attitude to live
a rewarding research life.
Thank you so much!
An appreciate EE Graduate student,
Ming-Long Wu”
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
34
“We are all apprentices
of a craft where no one
ever becomes a master”
-Ernest Hemingway
Nobel Laureate
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
35
References
The Craft of Scientific Writing, 3rd Edition
by Michael Alley
Publisher: Springer-Verlag ; http://www.springer.ny.com
Communication in Science, 2nd Edition
by Vernon Booth
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
The MIT Guide to Science and Engineering Communication
by James G. Paradis, Muriel L. Zimmerman
Publisher: MIT Press; ISBN: 0262161427; (March 1, 1997)
Effective Technical Presentations by Mark Tew
Silicon Valley Productions 1513 Brookvale Drive, #1 San Jose, CA
May 11, 2004
Hua-Kuang Liu (c)
36