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‫מינרבה‬
‫مينرفا‬
Μινέρβα
ミネルバ天使
Minerva
This article is about the Roman goddess. For other uses,
see Minerva (disambiguation).
Minerva (Etruscan: Menrva) was the Roman goddess
of wisdom and sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy. She
was born with weapons from the godhead of Jupiter.[1]
From the 2nd century BC onwards, the Romans equated
her with the Greek goddess Athena.[2] She was the virgin
goddess of music, poetry, medicine, wisdom, commerce,
weaving, crafts, and magic.[3] She is often depicted with
her sacred creature, an owl usually named as the "owl of
Minerva",[4] which symbolizes that she is connected to
wisdom.
1
Raised-relief image of Minerva on a Roman gilt silver bowl, 1st
century BC
Etruscan Menrva
Main article: Menrva
Stemming from an Italic moon goddess *Meneswā ('She
who measures’), the Etruscans adopted the inherited Old
Latin name, *Menerwā, thereby calling her Menrva. It is
assumed that her Roman name, Minerva, is based on this
Etruscan mythology, Minerva was the goddess of wisdom, war, art, schools and commerce. She was the Etruscan counterpart to Greek Athena. Like Athena, Minerva was born from the head of her father, Jupiter (Greek
Zeus).
By a process of folk etymology, the Romans could have
linked her foreign name to the root men- in Latin words
such as mens meaning “mind”, perhaps because one
of her aspects as goddess pertained to the intellectual.
The word mens is built from the Proto-Indo-European
root *men- 'mind' (linked with memory as in Greek
Mnemosyne/μνημοσύνη and mnestis/μνῆστις: memory,
remembrance, recollection, manush in Sanskrit meaning
mind).
2
Temple of Minerva in Sbeitla, Tunisia
In Fasti III, Ovid called her the “goddess of a thousand
works”. Minerva was worshiped throughout Italy, and
when she eventually became equated with the Greek goddess Athena, she also became a goddess of war, although
in Rome her warlike nature was less emphasized.[7] Her
worship was also taken out to the empire — in Britain, for
example, she was conflated with the local wisdom goddess Sulis.
Worship in Rome
The Romans celebrated her festival from March 19 to
Minerva was part of a holy triad with Tinia and Uni, March 23 during the day which is called, in the neuter
equivalent to the Roman Capitoline Triad of Jupiter- plural, Quinquatria, the fifth after the Ides of March, the
Juno-Minerva. Minerva was the daughter of Jupiter.
nineteenth, an artisans' holiday . A lesser version, the
As Minerva Medica, she was the goddess of medicine Minusculae Quinquatria, was held on the Ides of June,
and doctors. As Minerva Achaea, she was worshipped June 13, by the flute-players, who were particularly useat Luceria in Apulia where votive gifts and arms said to ful to religion. In 207 BC, a guild of poets and actors was
be those of Diomedes were preserved in her temple.[5][6] formed to meet and make votive offerings at the temple
1
2
5
PUBLIC MONUMENTS, PLACES AND MODERN CULTURE
Minerva and owl (right) depicted on Confederate currency
(1861).
tle legacy other than a few interesting Hellenic style
“Temples” in parks around Guatemala.
A head of “Sulis-Minerva” found in the ruins of the Roman baths
in Bath
of Minerva on the Aventine Hill. Among others, its members included Livius Andronicus. The Aventine sanctuary of Minerva continued to be an important center of the
arts for much of the middle Roman Republic.
Minerva was worshipped on the Capitoline Hill as one
of the Capitoline Triad along with Jupiter and Juno, at
the Temple of Minerva Medica, and at the "Delubrum
Minervae” a temple founded around 50 BC by Pompey on
the site now occupied by the church of Santa Maria sopra
Minerva facing the present-day Piazza della Minerva.
3
Universities and educational establishments
Main article: Minerva in the emblems of educational
establishments
As patron goddess of wisdom, Minerva frequently features in statuary, as an image on seals, and in other forms,
at educational establishments.
4
• According to John Robison’s Proofs of a Conspiracy
(1798), the third degree of the Bavarian Illuminati
was called Minerval or Brother of Minerva, in honour of the goddess of learning. Later, this title was
adopted for the first initiation of Aleister Crowley's
OTO rituals.
• Minerva is displayed on the Medal of Honor, the
highest military decoration awarded by the United
States government.
• Minerva is featured in the logo of the Max Planck
Society.
• Minerva alongside Mars is displayed on the cap
badge of the Artists Rifles Territorial SAS Regiment
of the British Army.
• Kingston Upon Hulls oldest Masonic Lodge is
named The Minerva Lodge.
• Minerva is the patron goddess of the Sigma Alpha
Epsilon fraternity and Delta Sigma Theta Sorority.
• Minerva is featured on the Union College seal. The
college motto is “We all become brothers under the
laws of Minerva.”
• Minerva is an Institute for training for SSB Interviews and written examinations like NDA, CDS .It
is situated in Sector 120,Mohali,Punjab.It is the first
and oldest Armed Forces Preparatory Institute in India and established in 1955.
Use by societies and governments 5 Public monuments, places and
modern culture
• The Seal of California depicts the Goddess Minerva.
Her having been born fully-grown symbolizes California having become a state without first being a
territory.[8]
• A small Roman shrine to Minerva (the only one still
in situ in the UK) stands in Handbridge, Chester. It
sits in a public park, overlooking the River Dee.
• In the early 20th century, Manuel José Estrada Cabrera, President of Guatemala, tried to promote a
“Worship of Minerva” in his country; this left lit-
• The Minerva Roundabout in Guadalajara, Mexico,
located at the crossing of the López Mateos, Vallarta, López Cotilla, Agustín Yáñez and Golfo de
3
Cortez avenues, features the goddess standing on a
pedestal, surrounded by a large fountain, with an inscription which says “Justice, wisdom and strength
guard this loyal city”.
• A bronze statue of Minerva lies in monument square
Portland, Maine. “Our Lady of Victories Monument” dedicated 1891, Richard Morris Hunt and
Franklin Simmons.
• A sculpture of Minerva by Andy Scott, known as
the Briggate Minerva, stands outside Trinity Leeds
shopping centre.
• Minerva is displayed as a statue in Pavia, Italy, near
the train station, and is considered as an important
landmark in the city.
[7] http://www.ancient.eu.com/Minerva/
[8] http://www.sos.ca.gov/digsig/greatseal.htm
Sources
• Origins of English History see Chapter Ten.
• Romans in Britain - Roman religion and beliefs see
The Roman gods.
• Old Norse Myths, Literature and Society
•
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.
(1870). "article name needed ". Dictionary of Greek and
Roman Biography and Mythology.
• Minerva is the name of a supercomputer at the Icahn
School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York See page 1090
City.
• On the summit of the dome of Liverpool Town Hall
in England is a statue, representing Minerva. It is 10
feet (3 m) high and was designed by John Charles
Felix Rossi. The present Liverpool Town Hall containing the statue was begun in 1749.
• Minerva is a reoccurring character in the Assassins
Creed franchise as a guide to Desmond and later an
antagonist.
6
See also
• Celtic mythology
• Second French Empire
• Sulis
7
References and sources
References
[1] Encarta World English Dictionary 1998-2004 Microsoft
Corporation.
[2] Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia, The Book People,
Haydock, 1995, p. 215.
[3] Candau, Francisco J. Cevallos (1994). Coded Encounters:
Writing, Gender, and Ethnicity in Colonial Latin America. University of Massachusetts Press. p. 215. ISBN
0-87023-886-8.
[4] Philosophy of Right (1820), “Preface”
[5] Aristotle Mirab. Narrat. 117
[6] Schmitz, Leonhard (1867). “Achaea (2)". In Smith,
William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and
Mythology 1. Boston. p. 8.
8 External links
• Roman Mythology
4
9 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES
9
Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses
9.1
Text
• Minerva Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minerva?oldid=636589017 Contributors: Bryan Derksen, Zundark, Andre Engels,
Tucci528, Olivier, Infrogmation, Michael Hardy, Gabbe, Looxix, Angela, Raven in Orbit, SaveThePoint, Furrykef, VeryVerily, Head,
Renato Caniatti, Wetman, Robbot, Wereon, Mushroom, Gtrmp, Netartnet, Eequor, AaronW, Bacchiad, Gdr, LiDaobing, Slowking Man,
The Singing Badger, Andux, Karl-Henner, Chmod007, Moverton, Discospinster, Rich Farmbrough, Vague Rant, Randee15, Vsmith, Silence, Smyth, Aranel, QuartierLatin1968, Aude, Bobo192, HiddenInPlainSight, Smalljim, Man vyi, Haham hanuka, Foeke, Hu, Vengeful Cynic, Dave.Dunford, Redvers, Ttownfeen, Woohookitty, ScottDavis, Timo Laine, Tripodics, MONGO, Essjay, Jwoodger, Chris
Weimer, BD2412, Dpv, Саша Стефановић, Biederman, FlaBot, Naraht, Margosbot, MGSpiller, Chobot, DaGizza, YurikBot, Retodon8,
Adam1213, Conscious, Pigman, Amitembedded, Yamara, Van der Hoorn, Stephenb, Gaius Cornelius, NawlinWiki, Wiki alf, Grafen,
RL0919, DeadEyeArrow, Botteville, Igiffin, AnnaKucsma, Johndburger, Lt-wiki-bot, Italian boy, Ketsuekigata, E Wing, Josh3580, Rredwell, Katieh5584, SmackBot, Tom Lougheed, KnowledgeOfSelf, Pgk, Dr. Elwin Ransom, Hmains, Rearden Metal, Brettpeace, Gorwell,
Sbharris, Hongooi, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Akhilleus, Glengordon01, Ofthehudson, JNIBERT, BehemothCat, Mistress Selina
Kyle, Freedom to share, Niera, SashatoBot, Pizzahut2, Kuru, Butko, Onlim, Lisapollison, SMasters, MarkSutton, Samfreed, Xiaphias,
Neddyseagoon, Midnightblueowl, Iridescent, Red 81, Joseph Solis in Australia, Zekigal, Matanariel, Namiba, Anakata, Zureks, Fordmadoxfraud, Gregbard, Rmallins, Atomaton, Bellerophon5685, Dougweller, SiN, Wexcan, Thijs!bot, Andyjsmith, Waveformula, Vertium,
Missvain, Crzycheetah, Itsmejudith, Dfrg.msc, AntiVandalBot, MoogleDan, Luna Santin, JAnDbot, Instinct, Andonic, Ahrarara, Cynwolfe, .anacondabot, Magioladitis, Freedomlinux, Frankyboy5, VoABot II, AuburnPilot, [email protected], Fordsfords, Andykoom, Doug Coldwell,
Papoise, Animum, Heliac, Simon Peter Hughes, Ironicon, Sibak, Jonomacdrones, MartinBot, Nehwyn, Anaxial, Jay Litman, Kateshortforbob, CommonsDelinker, PrestonH, Tgeairn, Nev1, Tilla, TheTrojanHought, Thetravellinggourmet, SSSN, Darkfrog24, Frankpeters,
Marlodge, Redtigerxyz, Cobwall, VolkovBot, Jeff G., Ecclesiastical, Philip Trueman, TXiKiBoT, Erik the Red 2, Davehi1, Pjm4474,
Rei-bot, Captain Wikify, Clarince63, Eubulides, Dark Tea, Spinningspark, Thanatos666, Pjoef, Stonecherub, Okelliot, PericlesofAthens,
Xalexjx, NHRHS2010, Chmarlyblob, SieBot, Euryalus, ToePeu.bot, Caltas, Seally13, Socal gal at heart, Lesssthan, Oxymoron83, Jm2gm,
Jerrymanderhonk, Wiki-BT, Denisarona, Nature’s Mistake, Jvwieringen, Joanna.Licata, ClueBot, GorillaWarfare, DFRussia, Agaddis,
Kashunda, Xioxox, Fotpegis, ChandlerMapBot, Excirial, Jena123, Sun Creator, 7&6=thirteen, A classicist, SchreiberBike, Alexyo50,
Natyayl, Catalographer, Thingg, Bkwrmgrl1, Versus22, Egmontaz, Jjvs, Editor2020, Zxly, Coccionos, Frood, Bgag, Addbot, Allynwalters, Thrutheseasons, Mac Dreamstate, Ccacsmss, Udugunit, Jsmtty11, Numbo3-bot, Lightbot, Bartledan, Drpickem, Luckas-bot, Victoriaearle, THEN WHO WAS PHONE?, AnomieBOT, Tom87020, OllieFury, Cheeseynips, LilHelpa, Xqbot, Ekwos, Narthring, Elshitsa,
Nautaparata, Gris379, Omnipaedista, Mattis, Gator13, Mìthrandir, Citation bot 1, SuperJew, Cubs197, Subirendra, Iblackie, FoxBot, TobeBot, Lotje, Seanoneal, Extra999, Jethwarp, Schulz47, RjwilmsiBot, VernoWhitney, Bradyf01, Teogarno, Deagle AP, EmausBot, WikitanvirBot, Ghostofnemo, Kagemusha77, Lolsaywhaat, Alpha Quadrant, Yiosie2356, Aeonx, Suslindisambiguator, Philafrenzy, Bobbythemazarin, Donner60, DASHBotAV, ClueBot NG, Cwmhiraeth, HauserF, AznBurger, A520, Mottenen, Yakyback, Kevin Gorman, Widr,
Robberto1986, Helpful Pixie Bot, HMSSolent, Vagobot, Zanyfire, AhMedRMaaty, Davidiad, Mark Arsten, Rembrandt 1976, Luvhpc,
TreboniusArtorius, Bethechangeyouhopetosee, Loupiotte, Intelligent 1000, MythBuffer, Hmainsbot1, TwoTwoHello, Jamesx12345, Rainbow Shifter, Deoxys12, Godot13, Minerva1976, Ldfkumjyfg, Ginsuloft, Jemmabluemoon, CamelCase, StarGuerra, Angeldimaria2807
and Anonymous: 498
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