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Slide 1
chapter
sixteen
Sociology in Modules
Richard T. Schaefer
1st Edition
Government and the Economy
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Slide 2
Government
and Economy
16
•Module 47: Government, Power, and Authority
•Module 48: Political Behavior and
Power in the United States
•Module 49: Economic Systems
•Module 50: Changing Economies
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Slide 3
A Look Ahead
█
█
█
How does the power
elite maintain its power?
Is war necessary in settling
international disputes?
How have the trends toward
deindustrialization and the outsourcing
of service jobs affected our economy?
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 47
Slide 4
Power and Authority
█
Political system: social institution
responsible for implementing
and achieving society’s goals
– Interacts closely with economic
system: social institution thorough
which goods and services are
produced, distributed, and consumed
– Politics: “who gets what,
when, and how” (Lasswell)
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 47
Slide 5
Power
Power: ability to exercise
one’s will over others (Weber)
█ Sources of power in political systems
█
– Force: actual or threatened use of coercion to
impose one’s political dissidents
– Influence: exercise of power
through process of persuasion
– Authority: institutionalized power recognized
by the people over whom it is exercised
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 47
Slide 6
Types of Authority
█
Three ideal types of authority (Weber)
– Traditional authority: legitimate power
conferred by custom and accepted practice
– Rational-legal authority:
power made legitimate by law
– Charismatic authority: power made
legitimate by leader’s exceptional personal
or emotional appeal to his or her followers
• Charismatic leaders often become well
known by breaking with established institutions
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 47
Slide 7
Figure 47-1: Filtering Information: Political Content
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 47
Slide 8
Types of Government
█
█
Monarchy: Form of
government headed
by a single member
of a royal family
Oligarchy: Form of
government in which
a few individuals rule
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 47
Slide 9
Types of Government
█
Dictatorship and Totalitarianism
– Dictatorship: Government in
which one person has nearly
total power to make and enforce laws
– Totalitarianism: Involves virtually complete
government control and surveillance over all
aspects of a society’s social and political life
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 47
Slide 10
Types of Government
█
Democracy
– Government by the people
– Representative democracy: Elected
members of legislatures make laws
U.S. is representative democracy,
but critics question how
representative it really is
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 47
Slide 11
War and Peace
█
War: Conflict between
organizations that possess
trained combat forces
equipped with deadly weapons
Legal definition typically requires
formal declaration of hostilities
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 47
Slide 12
War
█
Global view studies how and why nations
become engaged in military conflict
Nation-state view stresses
interaction of internal political,
socioeconomic, and cultural forces
█ Microview focuses on social impact
of war on individuals and their groups
█
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 47
Slide 13
Peace
█
Peace: Absence of war and
proactive effort to develop
cooperative relations among nations
– Global Peace Index: U.S.
ranked 97 on list of 121 nations
– Since 1990s, 90% of armed
conflicts occurred within states
Nations cannot maintain security
through threatening violence
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 47
Slide 14
Figure 47-2: U.S. Public Opinion
on the Necessity of War, 1971-2007
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 47
Slide 15
Figure 47-3: Global Peace Index
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 47
Slide 16
Terrorism
█
Terrorism: Use or threat of
violence against random or symbolic
targets in pursuit of political aims
– The end justifies the means
– Essential aspect of contemporary
terrorism involves use of media
– Terrorism and terrorist movements
symbolic enactments of masculinity
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 47
Slide 17
Terrorism
█
Since September 11, 2001,
governments around the world
renewed efforts to fight terrorism
– Worldwide, immigration and
processing of refugees slowed
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 48
Slide 18
Political Behavior
in the United States
█
Participation and Apathy
– In U.S., only small minority of citizens, often
from higher social classes, participate in
political organizations on local or national level
– By 2008 election voter turnout
was only 62% of eligible voters
Political participation makes
government accountable to voters
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 48
Slide 19
Research Today
█
Why Don’t More Young People Vote?
– If you do not vote, what
accounts for your apathy?
– Do you think voter apathy is
a serious social problem?
What might be done to increase
voter participation in your
age group and community?
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 48
Slide 20
Race and Gender in Politics
█
In U.S., political strength is lacking
in marginalized groups, such as
women and racial and ethnic minorities
– Progress toward inclusion of minority
groups in government has been slow
– Female politicians enjoying more
electoral success but evidence
that media cover them differently
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 48
Slide 21
Figure 48-1: Voter Turnout Worldwide
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 48
Slide 22
Figure 48-2: Women in National
Legislatures, Selected Countries, 2008
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 48
Slide 23
Power Elite Models
Elite model: society ruled by small group
of individuals who share common set of
political and economic interests
█ Mills’ Model
█
– Power elite: Small ruling elite of military,
industrial, and governmental leaders
– Power rests in the hands of few
– Global power elite being researched
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 48
Slide 24
Power Elite Models
█
Domhoff’s Model
– Stresses roles played by elites of
corporate community and leaders of
policy-formation organizations
– In electoral arena, two coalitions:
• Corporate-conservative
• Liberal-labor
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 48
Slide 25
Power Elite Models
█
Pluralist model: Competing
groups within the community
have access to government,
so no single group can dominate
– Variety of groups play
significant roles in decisions
• Fails to address potential
power of elites to keep
matters out of government debate
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 48
Slide 26
Figure 48-3: Power Elite Models
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 49
Slide 27
Economic Systems
█
Industrial society:
Society that depends
on mechanization
to produce its
goods and services
– Capitalism
– Socialism
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 49
Slide 28
Capitalism
█
Capitalism: Economic system
in which means of production
are held largely in private hands
– Main incentive for economic
activity is accumulation of profits
– Laissez-faire: Businesses compete
with minimal government intervention
– Monopoly: Exists when a
single firm controls the market
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 49
Slide 29
Socialism
█
Socialism: Means of
production and distribution
owned collectively rather
than privately owned
– Communism: Economic system under
which all property is communally owned
and no social distinctions are made on
the basis of people’s ability to produce
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 49
Slide 30
The Informal Economy
█
Informal economy: Transfer
of money, goods, or services
is not reported to the government
– Difficult to measure
In developing nations, informal
economy represents 40% to
60% of total economic activity
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 49
Slide 31
Sociology in
the Global Community
█
Working Women in Nepal
– In your own family, is “women’s work”
taken for granted? Have you ever tried to
figure out what it would cost your family
to pay for all the unpaid work women do?
– Why is recognizing women’s work
important? How might life change
if the true economic value of
women’s work were recognized?
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 49
Slide 32
Table 49-1: Characteristics of
the Three Major Economic Systems
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 49
Slide 33
Case Study:
Capitalism in China
█
China stands on the brink of
becoming world’s largest economy
– Chinese more interested in
acquiring latest consumer goods
– Communist Party officials’ decision to
open China’s economy to capitalism reduced
once omnipotent institution’s influence
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 49
Slide 34
The Road to Capitalism
█
The Communist party assumed control
of China in 1949, outlawing profit-making
– By 1960s, China’s economy
dominated by state-controlled enterprises
– In 1980s government eased
restrictions on private enterprise
– By mid-1990s party officials began to
give businesses to private entrepreneurs
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 49
Slide 35
The Chinese Economy Today
█
█
Growing free-market economy brought
significant inequality to Chinese workers
Chinese capitalists now have to
compete with multinational corporations
By 2009, the Chinese were buying more
automobiles than people in the U.S.
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 49
Slide 36
Chinese Workers
in the New Economy
█
Loosening state control led to rise in job
mobility, increased opportunity, and
prosperity for family-owned businesses
– Struggles include a lag between urban
and rural salaries and worker safety
– Many middle-aged urban workers lost
jobs to rural migrants seeking higher wages
– With growth of a middle class, many Chinese
seek same opportunities as Western workers
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 49
Slide 37
Figure 49-1: World’s Largest Economies, 2008
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 50
Slide 38
Microfinancing
█
Microfinancing: lending small
sums of money to poor so they
can work their way out of poverty
– Developed by Muhammad
Yunus in Bangladesh
• Works well in countries with
severe economic devastation
– Estimated microfinancing reaching over 75
million people in 100 countries in 2009
• Estimated that 90% of recipients are women
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 50
Slide 39
The Changing Face
of the Workforce
█
U.S. workforce is constantly changing
– Sociologists and labor specialists
foresee workforce increasingly composed
of women and racial and ethnic minorities
• 54% of new workers expected
to be women from 1984 to 2014
– More diverse workforce means
relationships between workers more likely
to cross gender, racial, and ethnic lines
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 50
Slide 40
Deindustrialization
█
Deindustrialization: systematic,
widespread withdrawal of investment
in basic aspects of productivity
– Can take the form of corporate restructuring
– Downsizing: reductions in a company’s
workforce as part of deindustrialization
– Social costs cannot be overemphasized
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 50
Slide 41
Research Today
█
Affirmative Action
– Is affirmative action part of the
admissions policy at the
college or university you attend?
Do you think the policy has helped?
– Might affirmative action exclude
some qualified White applicants?
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 50
Slide 42
Campaign Financing
– The price tag for all presidential
and congressional candidates
in 2008 was over $5 billion
– 57% of voters favor limits on
campaign spending, but 38%
believe a candidate should not
be limited in what she or he spends
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 50
Slide 43
Campaign Financing
█
Understanding the Issue
– Federal Campaign Act of 1974 placed
restrictions on donations made to
specific candidates for national office
• Loopholes allowed soft money
contributions to political parties, leadership
committees, and political action committees
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 50
Slide 44
Campaign Financing
█
Understanding the Issue
– Bipartisan Campaign Reform
Act passed in 2004
• Limited soft money
• Only applies to candidate who
accepts federal campaign financing
• New innovations in spending will
emerge along with new cries for reform
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 50
Slide 45
Campaign Financing
█
Applying Sociology
– Functionalists: political contributions keep
public involved in democratic process
– Conflict theorists: process allows donors
to influence government policymakers in
ways that tend to preserve their own wealth.
– Interactionists: point out symbolic significance
of public perception that big money drives
elections in U.S.
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Module 50
Slide 46
Campaign Financing
█
Initiating Policy
– Rise of online campaign financing
may represent new challenge
– Traditional reform groups continue to
call for tighter limits on contributions
– Supreme Court decision in 2010
allowed businesses, labor unions,
and other groups to spend their
own money on campaign materials
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.