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Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”
City-States in Mesopotamia
Sumerians were first to settle in this region, attracted by the rich soil.
B. Three Disadvantages / Environmental Challenges
1. Unpredictable flooding / dry summer months
2. No natural barriers for protection
- small villages lying in open plain were defenseless
3. Limited natural resources (stone, wood, metal)
C. Solutions
1. Irrigation ditches
Sumerian innovations in achieving civilization
2. Built city walls with
set example others would follow.
mud bricks
3. Traded with people
around them
But to arrive at these solutions,
for the products
they lacked.
required organized government.
Initiated Bronze Age.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Let’s now look at the type of government the Sumerians had.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.