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Transcript
2440: 141
Web Site Administration
Server Installation
Instructor: Enoch E. Damson
Prepare the Server for Installation
 Production systems use a single-boot system
 Only one operating system is on a computer
 Educational or training systems usually use multi-
boot systems
 More than one operating system on a computer
 Service packs (Microsoft) or errata (Linux) are useful
for operating system improvements and maintenance
 Linux errata are usually divided into: security alerts, bug
fixes and enhancements
Server Installation
2
Prepare the Server for Installation…
 Most operating systems are designed to control the
master boot record (MBR)
 MBR – a sector on the hard disk that contains a boot loader
program intended to start the boot process


Linux uses either the GRUB or LILO boot loaders
LILO (LInux LOader) –

Has no interactive command interface

Does not support booting from a network
Wrong configuration could leave the system unbootable
 Because changing the LILO config file requires the LILO stage one boot
loader to be rewritten to the MBR


GRUB (GRnux Unified Boat Loader) –

Has interactive command interface

Supports booting from a network
Defaults to the GRUB command-line interface, after incorrect configuration

Server Installation
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Prepare the Server for Installation…
 For multi-boot systems, you may want to install
Windows first before Linux
 The Linux boot method will allow both operating systems to
coexist on the same hard disk
Server Installation
4
Checking Hardware Compatibility
 Typically there are fewer problems when using hardware
designed for a server from major manufacturers
 IDE drives are always compatible
 Make sure the latest drivers for SCSI and RAID controllers
are available
 With video adapters and NICs, it is best to use ones from
major vendors
Server Installation
5
System Documentation
 Should be detailed enough for inexperienced network
administrator
 System documentation is an ongoing process
 Changes occur over the life of the server
 These changes need to be documented
 Need compatibility information
Server Installation
6
System Documentation…
 Some hardware information include:
 Server manufacturer, including model information
 Processor type and speed
 Amount of RAM
 Drive interface – RAID, SCSI, IDE
 Hard disk – size, manufacturer, and model
 NIC manufacturer and model
Server Installation
7
System Documentation…
 Other system information include:
 Partition information – number and sizes
 Operating system version installed
 Latest software patches
 Extra drivers needed
 URLs for latest drivers
Server Installation
8
System Documentation…
 Steps for installation including options chosen
 Keep documentation, CDs, drivers in a binder
 Know support details
 Who to call
 Contract phone number
 Type of support contract
 Expiration of contract
Server Installation
9
The Installation Process
 The Setup program will ask you about your system
 You need to know the answers to these questions before
you start
 Many of the questions are common to all operating
systems
Server Installation
10
The Installation Process…
 Partitioning the Hard Disk:
 A partition is a logical division of the hard disk
 On Windows systems, you may create a primary partition
and an extended partition


Primary partition – where a system boots from
Extended partition – where more drives are added

Gives you more logical drives in Windows
 It is best to isolate the operating system from
applications

If the application partition fills and the operating system is on the
same partition, the OS stops
Server Installation
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The Installation Process…
 Linux Partitions:
 Six partitions are used for Linux by default






/ (root partition)
swap (used for virtual memory)
/boot (boot files – small)
/usr (shared files and programs)
/home (user files and programs)
/var (Web site, FTP, log files)
 Just / and swap are required
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Managing Multiple Operating Systems on a
Single Computer
 Useful for development and training purposes
 Best to start with non-partitioned hard disk
 Create one partition for each Windows OS
 Allow Linux to create default partitions
 Install Windows first, then Linux
 Linux installation then produces a menu to select
Windows
Server Installation
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The Installation Process…
 Naming Computers:
 Identify a computer on the network
 Windows communicates the computer name to other
computers on the subnet so it should be unique
 Name of computer is not related to how the computer is
recognized on the Internet
 In Linux, the hostname can exist on more than one
computer

It only uses IP addresses for communication
Server Installation
14
The Installation Process…
 Software Licensing:
 Describes how the software can be used
 For Windows, usually each installation must be
activated by Microsoft
 Linux is basically free but there may be a cost for
packaging, support, and extras


Based on the GNU general public license
Red Hat has personal, professional, and Advanced
Server options
Server Installation
15
The Installation Process…
 Selecting a File System:
 A file system determines how files are stored on a hard disk
 Some Windows file systems include:
 NTFS
 FAT32
 FAT
 Some Linux file systems include:
 ext4
 ext3
 ext2
 JFS
Server Installation
16
Default Operating System File
Systems
Release Year
1981
1984
1985
1989
1990
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1998
1998
2000
2000
2001
2003
2003
2006
2008
2009
Operating System
MS-DOS/PC DOS
Mac OS
Mac OS
OS/2 v1.2
Windows 3.0 / 3.1x
Linux
FreeBSD v1-v5.0
Windows NT 3.5
Windows 95
Windows NT 4.0
Mac OS 8.1 / Mac OS X
Windows 98
Windows Me
Windows 2000
Windows XP
FreeBSD v5.1-v9
Windows Server 2003
Windows Vista
Windows Server 2008
Windows 7
Server Installation
File System
FAT12
Macintosh File System (MFS)
Hierarchical File System (HFS)
High Performance File System (HPFS)
FAT16B
ext / ext2 / ext3 / ext4
UFS1
NTFS
FAT16 and VFAT
NTFS
HFS Plus (HFS+)
FAT32
FAT32
NTFS
NTFS but FAT32 is also common
UFS2
NTFS
NTFS
NTFS
NTFS
17
Basic Linux Concepts
 No drive letters
 The root is /
 Devices may be mounted before usage
 mount /mnt/cdrom
 Devices may also be un-mounted before removing
them to flush the file buffer files are copied to them
 umount /mnt/floppy
Server Installation
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Linux Shell Prompt
 Shell – the command-line interface
 E.g. sh, bash, csh, tcsh, ksh
 Most work is done on Linux at the shell prompt using commands such
as the following:
Linux Shell Command
exit
kill/killall
cd
ls
mkdir
rm
rm -r
mv
cp
find/locate
useradd
clear
ifconfig
chmod
cmp
Server Installation
Windows Equivalent
exit
kill/pskill
cd
dir
md
del/erase
deltree
move
copy/xcopy/mv
find
addusers
cls
ipconfig
icacls/xcacls
comp
19
Configuring TCP/IP on Linux
 To determine TCP/IP configuration in Linux, type
ifconfig at a shell prompt
Server Installation
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Configuring TCP/IP on Windows
 To determine TCP/IP configuration in Windows, type
ipconfig at a command prompt
Server Installation
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