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Carlan Samuelson Physics 1010 Diagnostics x-radiation, Ultrasound, Mammography, Nuclear Medicine & MRI X Radiation, also known as X-ray was discovered in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen who died away in 1923. Roentgen was a professor at Wuerzburg University in Germany. Roentgen had discovered a scientific bombshell when he had a cathode-ray tube in his laboratory where he observed a fluorescent glow of crystals where his tube was laying. He was working with a bulb of positive and negative electrodes which were encapsulated in the bulb and discovered a bright colored light created by the material located near the tube. He was able to shield the tube with heavy black paper, and found a green colored fluorescent light generated by a material located only a few feet away. Through additional experiments, he also found that a new ray would pass through most substances. He named the ray X-ray, because, in mathematics “X” is used to indicated the unknown quantity. Later this invisible ray was found to pass through solid matter, such as X-rays would pass through the tissue of humans leaving the bones and material visible. One of Roentgen’s first experiments in 1895 was a test on his wife Bertha’s hand with a ring on her finger. This news of his new x-ray spread quickly throughout the world and became very public, and scientific fancy. Scientists everywhere would dublicate his experiment because the cathode tube was very well known in early 1896. There was then concern of potential danger, but not enough experiment was performed to suggest that X-rays would in any way be hazardous. What it seemed to some, X-rays could be beneficial for the body. X-ray is just as ordinary as any other electromagnetic radiation. They are produced by photons which is bits of energy used in light. There are two types of atomic processes that can make x-ray photons. One, being the Bremsstrahlung, which is a German term for “braking radiation”, and the second one being, K-shell emission. Both which are related in tungsten, tungsten, a material to target anode of the x-ray tube. X-rays are made by the change of electrons. However, Bremsstrahlung is a much easier and understandable process when the velocity of the electron is changed. Bremsstrahlung Radiation are x-ray tubes producing photons by accelerating a stream of electrons to energies which collides them into a heavy material. So much acceleration of the electrons produces Bremsstrahlung photons. These energy target materials are typically called tungsten. In the process of K-shell Emission Radiation, you have to remember that atoms have their electrons arranged in closed “shells” of different energies, therefor, the K-shell is the lowest energy being built out of an atom. Atoms normally produce heat so the amount of K-shell used in atoms is about 0.1% of electrons. When outer shell electrons drop into inner shells, they emit a “characteristic” part of an element which is known as a quantized photon. The Staff involved in X-ray tests and treatments are Radiologists. A Radiologist is a doctor who is concerned with interpreting X-ray pictures and performing certain types of investigations in the treatment or disease using x-rays. Cancer is one of the most commonly treated using Radiation. A simple x-ray is extremely informative. It can show broken bones, and problems with soft tissue in the body. During an x-ray examination the patient is asked to keep still as possible for the few seconds it takes for each image to be obtained. It’s a painless procedure with zero side effects. Immediately after the pictures are taken, the technicians look over then and then send them off to the radiologist for further examinations. It is said that radiation is dangerous and can cause cancer as well as treat it. That is so, except with the small doses of radiation in such high quality x-ray images, the risk of cancer is very small; so small that it shouldn’t be a scarce to any patient. Although, radiation can cause damage to a fetus, so any women who suspects she is pregnant and is going in for an x-ray should make sure her doctors know about her condition. In today’s society, x-rays are now also used in Dentist offices, where they are used to observe teeth and jaws, also we use satellites with x-ray detectors on them to do x-ray astronomy. Ultrasound is energy generated by sound waves of 20,000 or more vibrations per second. Ultrasound is used for medical diagnostics, and uses sound waves that are far above the frequency heard by the human ear. The history of ultrasound goes back to Lazzaro Spallanzani. In 1790 he experimented with bats and found that they maneuvered through the air using their hearing rather than sight. Later in the 1930’s, Dr. Karl Dussik and Australian psychiatrist, published the first paper on ultrasound where he attempted using his pictures to diagnose brain tumors. The procedure was called “hyperphonography”. He used heat sensitive paper to record echoes. Ultrasound imaging then got it’s start. Ultrasound imaging, is also known as ultrasound scanning or sonography, where it is exposing part of the body to high-frequency sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of the body. Ultrasound does not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-ray) because ultrasound is in the NOW, and can show structures moving and internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Doppler ultrasound is a special type of ultrasound that evaluates blood flow through a blood vessel, including arteries and veins in the abdomen, arms, legs, and neck. In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearances of organs, tissues, and vessels or detect abnormal masses, such as tumors. It’s all based off the same principles involved in sonar used by bats, ships, and fishermen. When a sound wave strikes an object, it bounces back, or echoes. By these waves is when we are able to determine how close an object is, it’s size, shape, and whether the object is solid, filled with fluid, or both. A very common type of ultrasound is a pregnancy ultrasound where sound waves are used to check on how the fetus is developing in the womb. Sonogram can determine a birth date, heart rate, or to see if there are multiple fetuses. They can also find if an embryo is implanted in a fallopian tube, miscarriage potential, or other problems in the placenta, uterus, and cervix. Getting into pregnancy trimesters, they can monitor the baby’s growth, heath, position, and if there is any birth defects, Down syndrome, and the amount of amniotic fluid, and early recognition of these things can help solve problems and resort to a healthy mother and baby. Mammography is used in a low-dose x-ray system to aid in the early detection and diagnosis of breast diseases in women. It all began in 1913, when a surgeon by the name of A. Salomon did a study on 3,000 mastectomies; the basis of mammography. Mammography is also a diagnostic that helps treat medical conditions but in the breasts. A type of mammography is a full-filled digital mammography, and this is almost similar to a digital camera in the way it works. It has solid state detectors that convert into electrical signals. After these pictures have been shot they are then printed off onto a screen so the patient can then view just as much as the doctor. Computer aided mammography is more into the computer animated. It looks for abnormal clarifications such as, mass, density, and can clarify or notice cancer. Some signs of cancer may be a lump in the breast, paint, or nipple discharge. Mammography is essential in detection because it can detect something wrong in the breast up to two years before anything can be felt. Some guidelines from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the American Cancer Society (ACS), the American Medical Association (AMA) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) recommend”screening mammography every year for women, beginning at age 40. Research has shown that annual mammograms lead to early detection of breast cancers, when they are most curable and breast-conservation therapies are available.” It is more important to women who have a history of breast cancer in genetics have advised to get expert medical advice about whether or not to start screening before the age of 40 to make sure they catch any problems that may start to form. There are limitations in Mammograms, like breast implants. They do block certain things but a good experienced Radiologist or technician knows how to get around it without hurting anything and can with furthermore detect any resorting issues. Nuclear medicine uses radioactive substances to get images of the body and then treating diseases. When a patient is undergoing radiation for cancer a PET scan is used to diagnose patients, and this is then where nuclear medicine starts. A lot of techniques are used today by doctors so looking inside the body isn't painful. Some of these techniques include X-rays, MRI, CAT scan, and ultrasound. All of these have different advantages and are used in for different areas and parts of the body for different conditions. Nuclear Medicine imaging gives doctors different ways of looking inside the body with uses radioactive substances. These techniques include: Pet scan "positron emission tomography, SPECT single photon emission computer tomography, cardiovascular imaging, and bone scanning. Nuclear Medicine is used for finding tumors, weak spots in blood vessel wallks, irregular blood flow, blood cell disorders, and inadequate functioning of organs. all tests are different and depend on the patients disorder and how they are being diagnosed. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used tremendously just in the last few decades. Dr Raymond Damadian a physician and scientist wanted to figure out how to use a machine that could scan the body with the use of magnets. Not only him but college students were trying to figure out the solution also. Nothing happened until July 3, 1977 when a graduate student volunteered to be the first human being to test out the MRI exam. It took almost five hours to complete and produce just one image. The origional machine which goes by the name of "indomitable," is now owned by Smithsonian institution. Doctors use MRIs to scan and help diagnose multiple sclerosis, brian tumors, torn ligaments, cancer, and torn ligaments just to name a few. MRI is one of the safest ways to see inside the body without cutting it open. During an MRI the patient is asked to take off any jewelry, strip credit cards and asked detailed questions about if the patient may or may not have metallic instruments inside of them. Also, some things they ask are to make sure you don’t have any: implanted drug infusion ports implanted electronic device, including a cardiac pacemaker. artificial limbs or metallic joint prostheses implanted nerve stimulators metal pins, screws, plates, stents or surgical staples The next step is to put you on a slap and push you into a hole that is barely large enough for a person. The patient then hears loud noises, and laying perfectly still the technician will repeat the process. In this machine two types of magnets are used. The first one is the Resistive magnet which are superconducting magnets, but lack liquid helium, when the magnets require a huge amount of electricity. The second magnet is Permanent magnets. These magnets have a constant magnetic field, although, they are so heavy it's hard to keep composure with a large magnetic field. And thirdly, there are also three gradient magnets in the MRI, these are a low strength compared to the others and these create a variable field, which allows all the different parts of the body to be scanned .