Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) Dr. Rath
... Treatment planning
• contouring of target and critical structures on image
• target contours on image slices constitute an empty sac
• fill up this sac with ‘radiation spheres’ (shots)
• x,y,z coordinates of the shots are given in the print out
• treatment tim ...
Proton Therapy for Cancer - SCCA Proton Therapy Center
... Effective in treating a broad range of tumors.
Although tumors can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy and standard X-ray radiation,
proton therapy can be particularly beneficial for patients with certain types of cancer as well
as some non-cancerous tumors and arteriovenous malformations.
The abi ...
In phantom studies, Brainlab`s ExacTrac system has demonstrated
... In phantom studies, Brainlab’s ExacTrac system has demonstrated superb accuracies in detecting
translational and rotational errors. However, it has been reported that when used on actual patients,
the ExacTrac’s shift results can be of considerable errors, i.e., translational error can exceed 3 mm ...
Homework 8 (due 4/2)
... 3. Electric charge is strictly conserved in our universe, meaning that the net charge of an
isolated system cannot change. Why doesn’t the production of an electron-positron pair
in a patient cause a change in the patient’s charge?
4. Gallium 67 (67Ga) is a radioactive isotope with a half-life of 3. ...
IOM and IMRT - Heather L. Schultz
... therapeutic ratio by reducing the toxicity of radiation while ensuring the
effective doses are delivered to the target volume.
o Another goal of IMRT is to increase tumor dose without increasing
morbidity or sacrificing tumor control
What is it?
o A form of 3D conformal therapy where the shape of ...
Linear Accelerator - RadiologyInfo.org
... the treatment will be delivered as planned.
Quality assurance of the linear accelerator is very important. There are several systems built into the
accelerator so that it will not deliver a higher dose than the radiation oncologist has prescribed. Each
morning before any patients are treated, the ra ...
New Technology in Radiation Oncology
... linac on a daily basis. This calls for
substantial investment in image acquisition
X-ray tube and flat panel imagers provide
stereo images for target localization in 3D
space. You need to use digital techniques
(instead of film) due to patient motion.
Lung STeReoTacTic Body RadiaTion TheRapy wiTh high inTenSiTy
... the Varian Clinac® iX linear accelerator generates a beam
characterized by a very high dose rate on the central beam axis,
with rapidly decreasing intensity moving away from the beam
center (see Figure 1). HIM beams are of interest for radiation
treatment because they may offer the potential for fas ...
What is Proton Beam Therapy? A National Centre for Proton Beam
... A National Centre for Proton Beam Therapy
We have invested $2 million to help plan and develop a National Centre for Proton Beam Therapy at the VCCC. The
National Centre will undertake both clinical treatment and world class research. It will bring together experts in
research and cancer treatment a ...
The Convolution/Superposition Method: A Model
... • It could target arbitrarily-defined anatomic sites.
• It would cause little damage to normal tissue away
from the tumor.
• The site of its action could be verified precisely.
• Its side effects were well known.
• It could be non-invasively measured in small
• It would make other drugs ...
ADVANCED RADIOTHERAPY TECHNIQUES
... Conformal therapy describes radiotherapy treatment that creates high-dose volume that is shaped to conform to the
desired target volume while minimizing the dose to critical normal tissues. A number of different treatment planning
techniques are routinely used to perform clinical conformal therapy. ...
Brain Imaging Jigsaw KEY
... Patient has fMRI before doing a task and then after, and
the images are “subtracted” to show brain activation.
When brain cells are active, they receive more blood
(and more glucose). Labeled radioactive glucose (e.g.
2-deoxy glucose with Fluorine-18 substituted for the
normal OH group) is injected ...
The IAEA has statutory responsibility under its - RPOP
... Some patients are undergoing tens of imaging procedures within the space of one
Patient doses in radiography have decreased significantly during the past few
decades, whereas doses to patients in computed tomography (CT) have not shown
a decrease, rather have increased as a result of a change ...
Dental CT Scan Parameter Form
... Patient initials (first 3 letters of last name, first 3 letters of first name) or ID (MRN):
Cone beam CT unit make and model:
MR-LINAC image guided radiotherapy for cancer treatment
... The company state that the ability of the MR-LINAC system to provide real-time MR images
during treatment, allows clinicians to visualise the patient’s internal anatomy, including soft
tissue, and to respond to any changes by adjusting the treatment plan and delivery. The
company add that this will ...
Complete dose study of double orbit cone
... Introduction: A relatively new improvement of cancer radiation treatment involves the method
of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). It allows the physician to take detailed volumetric images
of the treatment area before and during radiation treatment to ensure an accurate delivery of
planned treatment ...
Medical Use of Radioisotopes
... to the area requiring treatment. Brachytherapy
involves the precise placement of short-range
radioisotopes directly at the site of the cancerous
tumor. These are enclosed in a protective capsule
or wire that allows the ionizing radiation to
escape. The radiation treats and kills surrounding
Radiosurgery is surgery using radiation, that is, the destruction of precisely selected areas of tissue using ionizing radiation rather than excision with a blade. Like other forms of radiation therapy, it is usually used to treat cancer. Radiosurgery was originally defined by the Swedish neurosurgeon Lars Leksell as “a single high dose fraction of radiation, stereotactically directed to an intracranial region of interest”. In stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), the word stereotactic refers to a three-dimensional coordinate system that enables accurate correlation of a virtual target seen in the patient's diagnostic images with the actual target position in the patient anatomy.Technological improvements in medical imaging and computing have led to increased clinical adoption of stereotactic radiosurgery and have broadened its scope in recent years. Notwithstanding these improvements, the localization accuracy and precision that are implicit in the word “stereotactic” remain of utmost importance for radiosurgical interventions today. Stereotactic accuracy and precision are significantly increased by using a device known as the N-localizer that was invented by the American physician and computer scientist Russell Brown and that has achieved widespread clinical use in several stereotactic surgical and radiosurgical systems.Recently, the original concept of radiosurgery has been expanded to include treatments comprising up to five fractions, and stereotactic radiosurgery has been redefined as a distinct neurosurgical discipline that utilizes externally generated ionizing radiation to inactivate or eradicate defined targets in the head or spine without the need for a surgical incision. Irrespective of the similarities between the concepts of stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated radiotherapy, and although both treatment modalities are reported to have identical outcomes for certain indications, the intent of both approaches is fundamentally different. The aim of stereotactic radiosurgery is to destroy target tissue while preserving adjacent normal tissue, where fractionated radiotherapy relies on a different sensitivity of the target and the surrounding normal tissue to the total accumulated radiation dose. Historically, the field of fractionated radiotherapy evolved from the original concept of stereotactic radiosurgery following discovery of the principles of radiobiology: repair, reassortment, repopulation, and reoxygenation. Today, both treatment techniques are complementary as tumors that may be resistant to fractionated radiotherapy may respond well to radiosurgery and tumors that are too large or too close to critical organs for safe radiosurgery may be suitable candidates for fractionated radiotherapy.