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Who is Shakespeare? How does Literature survive? 1. Themes that are relatable to everyone and continues to be meaningful, language, complex characters. • Shakespeare has all of these. ▫ ▫ ▫ Withstood hundreds of years and millions of writers Impacted the world of Literature, culture, art, theater, and film Adapted to …? Biography • Most of what we know comes from his writing. • There are a lot of holes in his history from questions of his religious beliefs to sexual orientation • Born: April 23rd, 1564- we know this from his baptismal records • From a pretty well-to-do family. Mom- Mary Arden; father- John Shakespeare (business man) Education • Attended Christian Holy Trinity Church • Around age 11 entered grammar school of Straford, King’s New School- he would have studied theatre and acting, in addition to Latin literature, history and rhetoric ▫ What is rhetoric? Marriage- 1852 • At age 18, married Anne Hathaway (1556-1623). ▫ Still a minor, so would need his father’s consent • Anne was 8 years older so she was ______yrs old. • Baptisms of 3 children were recorded ▫ Susanna, Judith and Hamnet Occupation • Not clear what he was doing his first few years of marriage- possible working as a one of the Queen’s Men ▫ What are the Queen’s Men? • He was writing poems and plays, and was involved with theatre troupes. ▫ What are troupes? 1593- plague • When the plague set in, many people fled the cities for the country and the fresh air. • Many theatres were shut down for long stretched of time. • We think Shakespeare spent his time traveling between London, Stratford, and the provinces. ▫ During these dark days when not many theatres were open, what do you think Shakespeare was focused on? The Lord Chamberlain’s Men • His company was the most successful in London to this day • He had plays published and sold in octavo editions, or “penny-copies” to the more literate of his audiences. • Never before had a playwright enjoyed as much acclaim and been able to sell as popular literature Entrepreneur • Shakespeare was as much an artist, as an entrepreneur. ▫ Ownership in the theatrical company and the Globe. Religion • Why is it important to know Shakespeare’s religion? • It is important in understanding the man and his works because of the wealth of biblical and liturgical allusions, both Protestant and Catholic, in his writings and the hidden references to contemporary religious tensions that are claimed to be found in the plays. No evidence of his religion affiliation • Speculations- his family had Catholic sympathies and that he, himself, was a secret Catholic • On the other hand many scholars believe he was a member of the established Anglican Church Shakespeare wrote three types of plays…? • 1. • 2. • 3. • Tragedies • Histories • Comedies • For homework, you must find a definition for all three types of plays. Homework 1. How would Shakespeare view on religion impact his work? 2. How was Shakespeare’s view on religion a reflection of the time period? 3. What are the three types of plays? 4. What do we need to consider about the Elizabethan era when reading Shakespeare's plays? Religion affiliations/ tensions? Treatment of women? Who was Shakespeare writing to?