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Biological Safety Office
Environmental Health & Safety
Sharon Judge, PhD
Assistant Biosafety Officer
Pathogenic microorganisms present in blood and other
potentially infectious material (OPIM) that are able to
cause disease in humans
Hepatitis B virus (HBV, HepB)
 Hepatitis C virus (HCV, HepC)
 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Less commonly, human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1),
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), malaria, brucellosis, rabies,
leptospirosis, babesiosis, syphilis, Creutzfeld-Jakob
disease, arboviral infections (WNV, EEE), etc.
Implemented in 1991 by the Occupational Safety &
Health Administration (OSHA)
29 CFR 1910.1030
Revised in 2001 – safe sharps devices, maintain a log of
injuries from contaminated sharps
UF follows OSHA requirement
General and workplace-specific training
Completed BEFORE individual is assigned to tasks with the
potential for BBP exposure and ANNUALLY thereafter
In addition to training, individuals with potential exposure
must also have:
Access to the regulatory text and an explanation of its contents
Access to a copy of the UF Exposure Control Plan
Access to site-specific Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
Ensure dept. compliance
Ensure appropriate exposure control plan is in place and being
Employees, students, volunteers, etc
Follow exposure control plan, report problems/exposure
SHCC/Occ. Med
Immunizations & post-exposure follow-up
EH&S Biosafety
Develop/coordinate program, track participants
ALL employees, staff, students, volunteers, affiliates with
potential exposure to BBP from human blood/OPIM
Custodians, medical providers, dentists/dental staff,
autopsy staff, clinical laboratory staff, research lab staff
& students, biomedical engineers, athletic trainers,
event staff, police, emergency responders, physical
plant workers…etc
Cerebrospinal fluid
Synovial fluid
Peritoneal fluid
Pericardial fluid
Pleural fluid
Nasal secretions
Semen/Vaginal secretions
Breast milk
Amniotic fluid
*unless visibly contaminated
with blood
1. Cuts or punctures with contaminated sharp objects
2. Splashes to mucous membranes
3. Contamination of broken/non-intact skin
A woman in KY was arrested and charged with public
intoxication (March 2010)
While changing into an inmate uniform, she squirted a
stream of breast milk into the face of a female deputy
The press release sparked a debate when it was noted
that the deputy was able to “clean the biohazard off of
Does this constitute an occupational exposure?
Yes, breast milk is considered OPIM
All human blood or OPIM is treated
as infectious
Safety Equipment
Safe Work Practices
Personal Protective Equipment
Standard precautions = universal
precautions + body substance
isolation. Applies to blood & all other
body fluids, secretions, excretions
(except sweat), nonintact skin, and
mucous membranes
Human blood and OPIM
Objects/items contaminated by blood or OPIM
Unfixed human tissues/organs (other than intact
Cell or tissue cultures that may contain BBP agents
Blood/tissues from animals infected with BBP agents
Use Universal Precautions for all human cell lines
ATCC started testing newly manufactured/deposited cell
lines for common viral pathogens (HIV, HepB, HepC,
HPV, EBV, and CMV) in January 2010
Many infectious agents yet to be discovered and for
which there is no test
Remember HIV?
What about XMRV?
Spread through direct contact with infected
fluids (blood, semen, vaginal fluids)
Infection may be acute or chronic
~4.3-5.6% of Americans have been infected with HepB
5-10 % of adults will develop chronic infection; ~1.2 million people
with chronic HBV
15-25% develop cirrhosis , liver failure, or liver cancer (~ 3000
Many people (~50%) are asymptomatic; if symptoms
occur they include:
Abdominal pain
Loss of appetite
Joint pain
Dark urine
~30% of these exposures results in infection
Mucosal exposure to blood/body fluids
Exposure to nonintact skin from contaminated surfaces
and equipment – HBV can remain infective in dried
blood at RT for at least 1 week (MacCannell et al., Clin Liver Dis
2010; 14:23-36)
Get vaccinated!
Universal Precautions
Given to newborns, 120 million people
in U.S. have received at least one dose
>95% develop immunity after full series
(3 doses given at 0, 1, 6 mos)
In Gainesville, free @UF SHCC
Bring completed
Acceptance/Declination statement with
If you decline, can change mind at any
Health-care workers or public safety workers at high risk
for continued percutaneous or mucosal exposure to blood
or body fluids, HBV research lab workers
Performed 1-2 months after dose #3
HepB surface antibody (anti-HBs) ≥ 10 mIU/mL - immune
Anti-HBs < 10 mIU/mL – revaccinate (3 doses) and retest anti-HBs
Still negative – nonresponder, need HBIG after exposure
Previously vaccinated but not tested? Test for anti-HBs
after an exposure; if negative, treat as susceptible.
Transmitted primarily through contact with
infected blood
Many people asymptomatic (symptoms
similar to HepB)
~1.8 % of Americans have been infected
with HepC, 3.2 million chronically infected
~ 12,000 deaths/year
Leading indication for liver transplant in U.S.
Percutaneous injury, esp. with deep punctures or extensive
blood exposures
~2% develop infection
Mucosal/nonintact skin exposures rarely documented
Proper cleaning/disinfection of surfaces important
HCV in dried blood samples remains infective for at least 16 hours
(Kamili et al., Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007; 28:519-524)
Universal Precautions for Prevention!
Antivirals (interferon/ribavirin) can have serious side effects,
treatment lasts 24-48 weeks
Transmitted through contact
with infected blood/OPIM
1° infection
Asymptomatic phase
Symptomatic phase
transient, non-specific illness
(fever, malaise, muscle pain,
sore throat)
↑ susceptibility to opportunistic
infections, nonspecific
constitutional symptoms (night
sweats, weight loss, anorexia,
Advanced (AIDS)
one or more opportunistic
infections, CD4<200 cells/µl
 > 1 million living with HIV/AIDS
 ~56,000 new infections/year
 ~20% don’t know they are infected
 Florida ranks 3rd among states
in the number of reported
HIV/AIDS cases
Risk for HIV transmission after:
Percutaneous injury – 0.3%
Mucous membrane exposure – 0.09%
Nonintact skin exposure – low risk (< 0.09%)
57 documented occupational
infections in U.S. (139 possible infections)
84% resulted from percutaneous exposure!
No cure
No vaccine
Antiretroviral therapy – cocktail of 3 or more drugs,
costly, side effects, drug resistance
Always use Universal Precautions!
Risks of becoming infected after a needle stick injury:
*If unvaccinated*
Engineering (safety equipment)
◦ Safety needles, sharps box, biosafety cabinet
Work Practices
◦ Cleaning work surfaces, not recapping needles
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
◦ Gloves, lab coat, face shield
Maximum protection when
these controls overlap
Sharps container
 Biosafety cabinet
 Cleanable work surfaces/chairs
 Leak-proof transport containers
 Safety needles/syringes
List of safety sharps devices available can be found at:
Know what they are and follow them!
Minimize splashes
Don’t recap needles
Know how to handle spills
Wash your hands!
No eating/drinking in areas where blood/OPIM
is handled or stored
Discard needles directly into sharps
Do not overfill the sharps box – close and
replace when ¾ full
Never attempt to re-open a closed sharps box
Circumstances Associated with Hollow-Bore Needle Injuries
NaSH June 1995—December 2003 (n=10,239)
35% disposal
FRESHLY DILUTED (w/in 24 hrs) 1:10 solution of
household bleach
EPA listed tuberculocidal disinfectant
◦ Clorox, amphyl, lysol, sporicidin
Ethanol evaporates too quickly to be an effective
Notify people in the area
Don appropriate PPE (gloves, safety glasses)
Place absorbent material on spill
Apply appropriate disinfectant – allow sufficient contact time (30 min)
Pick up material (watch for glass – use tongs or dust pan); dispose of
as biowaste
Reapply disinfectant and wipe
For large/problematic spills, call EH&S Biosafety Office (392-1591)
Container of undiluted household bleach
Several pairs of gloves
Safety glasses
Absorbent material
Biohazardous waste (autoclave) bags
Dust pan & scoop or tongs for broken glass
Place in a labeled bag or bucket and keep in areas
where biohazards are used
Pay attention to frequently missed
areas – fingertips, between fingers,
under jewelry
Wash hands after removing gloves & before leaving the work area
If no sink nearby, use hand sanitizer and then wash with soap and water ASAP
Wear it WHEN and WHERE you are supposed to
PPE should never be worn in common areas (offices,
hallways, bathrooms, cafeterias, etc) or when handling
common-use items (doorknobs, elevator buttons,
It is also common courtesy – others don’t know what you
may have touched/where you have been
PPE must be supplied by the employer
It must fit, be suitable to the task (use common sense),
and cleaned or disposed of properly (this does not mean
taking it home to wash!)
◦ Gloves
◦ Face and Eye Protection
 Surgical mask, goggles, glasses w/side shield, face shield
◦ Body
 Gowns, aprons, lab coats, shoe covers
Absolutely no open toed
shoes in the lab!
 Never re-use or wash gloves!
 Some chemicals may breakdown the glove –
use glove compatibility chart
Pay attention to how you remove your gloves!
Equipment, practices, and PPE used AT YOUR SITE to
protect you and others
Written down, reviewed, accessible, updated annually or
as needed
Template for SOPs:
More stringent control measures
Work must be registered with
EH&S Biosafety Office (rDNA or
BA registration)
Enrollment in medical
surveillance program
Follow CDC/NIH BSL-2
containment practices at a
Wash wound with soap & water for 5 minutes; flush mucous
membranes for 15 minutes
Seek immediate medical attention (1-2 hrs max)
◦ In Gainesville, call 1-866-477-6824 (Needle Stick Hotline)
◦ In Jacksonville, 7am-4pm, go to Employee Health Suite 505 in Tower
1; Other hours, go to ER
◦ Other areas, go to the nearest medical facility
Notify supervisor
Contact UF Worker’s Compensation Office, 352-392-4940
Allow medical to follow-up with appropriate testing & required
written opinion
Type/amount of
Infectious status
of source
Susceptibility of
exposed person
injury (depth,
extent, device)
Presence of HepB
surface antigen
(HBsAg) and HepB
e antigen (HBeAg)
HepB vaccine and
vaccine response
Mucous membrane
Fluids containing
Presence of HepC
Immune status
Type of exposure
Non-intact skin
Presence of HIV
Bites resulting in
blood exposure to
either person
CDC PEP Guidelines:
Training records:
◦ Retain a minimum of 3 years
Medical records for immunization or post-exposure
follow up:
◦ Retain for duration of employment + 30 yrs (includes HepB
vaccination records, vaccination declination statement)
Confidential sharps injury log (type of device involved,
where and how injury occurred):
◦ Retain for 5 years from date of exposure
Warning labels must be placed on:
◦ Containers of regulated waste
◦ Refrigerators & freezers containing blood or OPIM
◦ Containers used to store, transport, or ship blood or
Use red bags for waste containers