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Transcript
Primary Endocrine Organs, Tissues and Cells that produce
Item # Secretion Initiated by
Secretion Inhibited by
Hormone
Hormone Illustration
Alternate Name
Organ responsible for
Secretion
Cell Type
responsible for
Secretion
Target Organ or
Tissue
1
Physiological changes
activated by a stressful
event.
Relaxed and calm states of being
Norepinephrine
Noradrenaline and levarterenol
Adrenal Glands
(adrenal medulla)
Chromaffin cells
Brain
2
Melatonin receptors
Atenolol and luzindole
Melatonin
N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine
Pineal Gland
Pinealocytes
Brain
3
ACTH
Regulate male reproductive
processes
Gonadocorticotropic Hormone
GnRh
Adrenal Glands
(adrenal cortex)
Brain
Anterior pituitary
gland
4
Low level of cortisol,
stress, fever
Increased levels of cortisol
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
Corticotropin
Anterior Pituitary
Corticotrophs
Adrenal cortex
5
Syncytiotrophoblast during
pregnancy
It inhibits insulin.
Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin
(hCS)
Growth hormone (GH)
Anterior pituitary gland.
Somatotroph cells
Peptides released by
neurosecretory nuclei
of the hypothalamus
1 OF 16
crine Organs, Tissues and Cells that produce Hormones
Target
Organ/Tissue
Illustration
Primary Endocrine Organs, Tissues and Cells that produce
Principle Action
Consequences of
deficieny
Chemical Class
Consequences of excess
Feed Back
System
1
Fight or flight response to stress, also
known as adrenaline. Prepares the
body for increased activity.
Orthostatic hyptension and
blood vessel disease.
Amino acid
Increased heart contraction rate,
constriction of blood vessels,
bronchiole dilation, and increased
metabolic rate.
Negative
Neurogenesis.com
http://en.wikipedia.org/
wiki/Norepinephrine
2
Influences daily rhythms, sleep and for
some people seasonal changes in
mood.
Insomnia, trouble sleeping
Circadin
Increase hormone can cause a
sleeping disorder .( Also sleep can
help growth development and energy.
Only if you sleep for 8-10 hrs.)
Negative
www.springerlink.com/i
ndex/M6621743540748
70.pdf Biology of
Humans
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M
3
Stimulates the anterior pituitary gland
to release LH
Underproduction of testosterone
Peptid
Sexual Infantilism
Negative
Biology of humans
http://en.wikipedia.org/
wiki/Gonadotropin
4
Stimulates synthesis and release of
hormones from adrenal glands.
Hypoadrenalism
Peptide
Hyperadrenalism
Negative
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Adrenocorticotropic_hormo
ne
Polypeptide
Thickens the bones of the jaw,
fingers and toes
Negative
http://medicaldictionary.thefreedictio
nary.com/human+chori
onic+somatomammotr
opin
Item #
5
Stimulates growth and cell reproduction
Growth failure and short stature
in humans and other animals.
2 OF 16
Molecular
Structure
Reference
Item # Secretion Initiated by
Secretion Inhibited by
Hormone
Hormone Illustration
Alternate Name
Organ responsible for
Secretion
Cell Type
responsible for
Secretion
Target Organ or
Tissue
6
Low levels of thyroid
hormones
High levels of thyroid hormones
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
Thyrotropin
Anterior Pituitary
Neurosecretory Cells,
Thyrotrophs
Thyroid Gland
7
T cells (lymphoctes)
Low level of T cells
Thymosin
Thymopoietin
Thymus
Cortex
Lymphoid
8
It is released in response
to atrial stretch and a
variety of other signals
induced by hypervolemia,
exercise or caloric
restriction.
Low blood pressure.
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)
Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF),
or atriopeptin
It is released in response to
atrial stretch and a variety of
other signals induced by
hypervolemia, exercise or
caloric restriction.
Atrial myocytes
Heart
9
High Calcium
concentration in blood
Low levels of calcium in blood
Parathyroid Hormone
PTH and Parathormone
Parathyroid Gland
Parathyroid chief cell
Blood
10
Blood glucose levels start
to fall too low
Glucagon-like peptide-1
Glucagon
Pancreatic Peptide
Pancreas
Alphn cells of b ilet of
langerhans
Blood stream
3 OF 16
Target
Organ/Tissue
Illustration
Principle Action
Consequences of
deficieny
Chemical Class
Consequences of excess
Feed Back
System
6
1
Stimulates synthesis and release of
thyroid hormones, growth and function
of thyroid gland
Hypothyroidism
Glycoprotein
Hyperthyroidism
Negative
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Thyroidstimulating_hormone
7
Promotes maturation if white blood
cells
Decrease T cells can occur in
infection and disease.
Blood (white blood
cells)
No consequences
Negative
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih
.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2
138952/ Biology of
Humans
8
ANP acts to reduce the water, sodium
and adipose loads on the circulatory
system, thereby reducing blood
pressure.[1]
Increased blood pressure.
Polypeptide
Low blood pressure.
Negative
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih
.gov/pubmed/8897999
9
Increases blood levels of calcium
Hypoparathyroidism, increased
concentrations of Calcium, and
decreased concentrations of
Phosphorous.
Peptid
Primary and secondary
hyperparathyroidism.
Negative
http://www.webmd.com/a-toz-guides/parathyroidhormone
10
Cause liver to convert stored glycogen
into glucose and release it into the
bloodstream, raising blood glucose
levels
Hypoglycaemia
29 amino acid polypeptide
Causing pancreatic tumors as
glucagonoma.
Negative
Item #
4 OF 16
Molecular
Structure
Reference
http://www.springerlink.
com/content/w0l1768t5
354vk25/
http://en.wikipedia.org/
wiki/Glucagon
Item # Secretion Initiated by
Secretion Inhibited by
Hormone
Hormone Illustration
Alternate Name
Organ responsible for
Secretion
Cell Type
responsible for
Secretion
Target Organ or
Tissue
12
Mechanical or infant
suckling
Absence of nipple stimulation
Prolactin (PRL)
Luteotropic Hormone
Anterior Pituitary
Lactotrophs
Breasts
13
Pregnancy
Aromatase inhibitors work by
inhibiting the action of the
enzyme aromatase
Estrogen
Androgen
Corpus luteum, and the
placenta.
Developing follicles
Breast and uterus,
brain, bone, liver,
heart and other
tissues.
Oxytocin (OT)
Pitocin
Posterior Pituitary
Neurosecretory Cells
Breasts and Uterus
14
Stress that causes
Physical stimulation of the catecholamines to be released.
breasts
The Catecholamines repress the
oxytocin neurons.
15
Phospholipase A2
Decrase the glucose in the
blood strream
Insulin
NPH Insulin, Lente Insulin,
Insulin Aspart, Insulin glargine
Pancreas
B islet cells
Liver and skeletal
muscules
16
Falling levels of EPO,
moderate bleeding
Chemotherapy and PO2 is
normal, EPO derease
Erythropoietin (EPO)
Epoetin alfa
Kidneys
Extraglomerular
mesangial
Liver
5 OF 16
Target
Organ/Tissue
Illustration
Principle Action
Consequences of
deficieny
Chemical Class
Consequences of excess
Feed Back
System
1
12
Stimulates breasts to produce milk.
Absence of milk production
Protein
Enlarge mammary glands in both
male/females, infertility, galactorrhea
Negative
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prolac
tin
13
They promote the development of
female secondary sexual
characteristics, such as breasts, and
are also involved in the thickening of
the endometrium and other aspects of
regulating the menstrual cycle.
Low estrogen levels during
pregnancy can reduce future
fertility for female offspring.
Steroid
High estrogen levels during
perimenopause and menopause can
have effects such as headaches,
breast tenderness and even in some
cases breast cancer if left untreated.
Positive
http://www.naturalhormones.net/estrogenhigh-levels.htm
14
Impairs maternal skeletal
Stimulates uterine muscle contraction,
remodeling, gives problems with
and secretion of milk
nursing and uterine contractions.
Peptide
There is no known effect for the
excess of Oxytocin.
Item #
Reference
Positive
http://www.gfmer.ch/Endo/L
ectures_10/Oxytocin.htm
/www.diabitieslife.com
http://www.medicinenet.
com/insulin/article.htm
15
Use and remove glucose
Diabetes
Peptide
Low blood glucose
Negative
16
Hormone released from th e kindeny
that stimulates thr production of red
cells in the bone morrow
Anemia
Peptid
Polycythemia
Negative
6 OF 16
Molecular
Structure
http://en.wikipedia.org/
wiki/Hormone
Item # Secretion Initiated by
Secretion Inhibited by
Hormone
Hormone Illustration
Alternate Name
Organ responsible for
Secretion
Cell Type
responsible for
Secretion
Target Organ or
Tissue
17
Angiotensin II
Sodium ions, and dopamine,
ANH
Aldosterone
11β,21-dihydroxy-3,20dioxopregn-4-en-18-al
Adrenal Glands
(adrenal cortex)
Zona glomerulosa cells
Kidneys, and
increases blood
volume
18
Blood vessels
Increased Ca & phosphate
Calcitrol
(1,25-dihydroxyvitaminD3)
Kidneys
Parathyroid cells
Kidneys
19
It is initiated by the
interaction of angiotensin
II with the AT1 receptor.
Angiotensin II (ANG II) inhibits
bTREK-1 (bovine KCNK2) K(+)
channels.
Angiotensin II
Renin substrate.
Liver
Adrenocortical cells
Kidneys
20
Gastric luminade peptides
The presence of acid
Gastrin
Gastric acid
GI Tract
G cells
Stomach and
duodenum.
21
Lipoprotein lipase
Small meals
Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic
Peptide
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide
(GIP)
Small intestine
K cells
Small intestine
7 OF 16
Item #
17
1
18
Target
Organ/Tissue
Illustration
Principle Action
Consequences of
deficieny
Chemical Class
Consequences of excess
Feed Back
System
Increases blood pressure
Hyperkalemia with an increase
in total body potassium
Steroid
Addisons disease
Negative
Active form of
vitamin D
Hypercalcaemia
Negative
http://www.newsmedical.net/news/2009
/02/05/45634.aspx
It increases the level of calcium in the
Hypocalcemia and osteoporosis.
blood
Molecular
Structure
Reference
health.allrefer.com
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Aldosterone
19
Angiotensin II acts as an endocrine,
autocrine/ paracrine, and intracrine
hormone.
Hypotension
Oligopeptide
Hypertension
Negative
http://hyper.ahajournal
s.org/cgi/content/full/hy
pertensionaha;29/1/40
1
20
Stimulates secretion of gastric acid by
the parietal cells of the stomach
Indigestion
Peptide hormone
Acid hypersecretion, ulcer disease,
and malignant potential
Negative
http://www.wrongdiagn
osis.com/f/functioning_
pancreatic_endocrine_t
umor/symptoms.htm
21
Neutralizes gastric acids to protect the
small intestine from acid damage
Constipation
Peptide
Abdominal bloating and upset
stomach
Negative
http://ajpgi.physiology.o
rg/cgi/content/full/279/3
/G561
8 OF 16
Item # Secretion Initiated by
Secretion Inhibited by
Hormone
Hormone Illustration
Alternate Name
Organ responsible for
Secretion
Cell Type
responsible for
Secretion
Target Organ or
Tissue
22
Acidification of the
duodenum
Normal pH level
Secretin
None
Duodenum
S cells
Pancreas
23
Secreted by the
duodenum
PC synthesis
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
Previously called
pancreozymin
Specific receptors present in
the basolateral membrane
I-cells
Pancreas and
gallbladder
24
Is primarliy from the LCells
Pancreatic Polypeptide
Glucagon
Pancrease
PP Cells
Pancreas
25
Secreted by the
adipocytes
During proestrus may trigger the
preovulatory release of
luteinizing
Leptin, and Estrone
Lepton and estrone
Andipose Tissue
Adipocytes
Ovaries, skeletal
muscle, stomach
(lower part of fundic
glands),, bone
marrow.
26
Pregnancy
Inhibited angiogenesis
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
HCG
Placenta
27
GnRH secretion
Absence of GnRH secretion
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Gonadotropins
Anterior Pituitary
9 OF 16
Seminoma,
choriocarcinoma, germ Corpus luteum of the
cell tumors, hydatidiform
ovary
mole
Gonadotrophs
Testes and Ovaries
Target
Organ/Tissue
Illustration
Principle Action
Consequences of
deficieny
Chemical Class
Consequences of excess
Feed Back
System
Controls the secretions into the
duodenum
Unregulated ph level
Peptide hormone
When they receive too much secretin
they experienced nightmares and
sensory overload.
Negative
http://www.autismcons
ultingservice.com/secr
etin.htm
23
Responsible for stimulating the
digestion of fat and protein
Less bile secretion
Peptide
Tumorally synthesized and secreted
gastrin
Negative
http://www.statemaster
.com/encyclopedia/Cho
lecystokinin
24
Self regulate the pancreas secretion
activities (endocrine and exocrine), it
also has effects on hepatic glycogen
levels and gastrointestinal secretions.
Impaired Glucose Tolerance
Polypeptide
Supresses excessive weight gain
Negative
25
Lays a key role in regulating energy
intake and energy expenditure,
including the regulation (decrease) of
appetite and (increase) of metabolism.
Increased appetite
Protein
Decreased appetite
Negative
http://users.rcn.com/jki
mball.ma.ultranet/Biolo
gyPages/L/Leptin.html
26
Promotes the maintenance of the
corpus luteum during the beginning of
pregnancy, causing it to secrete the
hormone progesterone.
Hypogonadism
Peptide hormone
Widespread choriocarcinoma and
relatively few symptoms of
thyrotoxicosis
Negative
http://users.rcn.com/jki
mball.ma.ultranet/Biolo
gyPages/S/SexHormon
es.html
Negative
http://en.wikipedia.o
rg/wiki/Folliclestimulating_hormon
e
Item #
22
1
27
Stimulates gamete formation and
Primary hypogonadism,
Polycystic ovarian syndrome, Kallmann syndrome, hypopituitarism,Glycoprotein
and hyperprolactinemia
secretion of estrogen by ovaries
cryptorchidism(undescended testes)
10 OF 16
Molecular
Structure
Reference
http://linkinghub.elsevie
r.com/retrieve/pii/S0022
480408007129
Item # Secretion Initiated by
Secretion Inhibited by
Hormone
Hormone Illustration
Alternate Name
Organ responsible for
Secretion
Cell Type
responsible for
Secretion
Target Organ or
Tissue
28
Pregnancy
Progesterone inhibits lactation
during pregnancy
Progesterone
"Hormone of pregnancy"
Secreted by the corpus
luteum of the ovary and by
the placenta
Progesterone secretion
by luteinizing human
granulosa cells
Uterus
29
Testes
High levels of the hormone LH.
Testosteone
Androgen
Teste
Adrenal Cortex
Testis and
prostatemuscle and
bone mass and hair
growth.
30
BY FSH ( Follicle
stimulating hormone) and
LH (luteinizing) hormone in
the ovaries.
Aromatase inhibitors
Estrogen
Oogenesis
Ovary
Adrenal Cortex
Gonads
31
Dioscorea
High levels of the hormone FSH
Progesterone
Oogenesis
Ovary(Corpus lutem)
Adrenal Cortex
Gonads
32
Insulin induced
hypoglycemia, low levels
of progesterone and
testosterone, and GnRH
secretion.
High levels of, (in the testes
testosterone, in the overies
estrogen and progesterone)
Luteininzing Hormone (LH)
Gonadotropins
Anterior Pituitary
Gonadotrophs
Gonads
33
Ultraviolet radiation
exposure to the epidermis
Absence of UV radiation
exposure to the epidermis and
excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines.
Melanocyte -stimulating hormone
Lipotropin
Anterior Pituitary
Corticotropes
Dermis
11 OF 16
Item #
Target
Organ/Tissue
Illustration
Principle Action
Consequences of
deficieny
Headaches,Mood
disorder,Bloating,Abdominal
pain, Breast tenderness,
Lowered levels of HDL ("good"
cholesterol)
,
Disease or damage to the
hypothalamus, pituitary gland, or
testicles
Chemical Class
Consequences of excess
Feed Back
System
Steroid
Involved in the female menstrual
cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation)
and embryogenesis
Negative
Lipids
Loss of brain cells
Negative
Molecular
Structure
Reference
28
1
Irregular periods, ovarian cysts,
infertility, miscarriage, weight gain,
bone loss, sugar craving
29
Development of male reproductive
tissues
30
Primary female sex hormone
Hot flashes, Fatigue,
Forgetfulness, Irregular
bleeding, Depression
Lipids
Acne, Facial hair, Ovarian cyst, Midcycle pain, Irritable, Angry
Negative
31
Steroid hormone involved in the female
menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports
gestation) and embryogenesis
Infertility, Carbohydrate cravings,
Irregular periods, Breast
tenderness, lower body
temperature
Lipids
Inhibits pituitary secretion of FSH and
LH; As a result the developent of new
follicles are inhibited.
Negative
32
Causes ovulation and stimulates
ovaries to secrete estrogen and
pregesterone. Stimeulates testes to
synthesize and secrete testosterone.
Secondary hypogonadism
(Kallmann syndrome)
Glycoprotein
Primary hypogonadism
Negative
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lut
einizing_hormone
33
Produces melanin, modulates the
immune system and controls nerve
function.
Underlies damage caused by the
exposure to biologically
produced toxins.
Polypeptide
No melain produced, Albinism
Negative
http://www.biomedicine.org/medicineproducts/MELANOCYTESTIM-HORMONE--BETA23678-1/
12 OF 16
http://www.answers.co
m/topic/progesterone
http://www.urologychan
nel.com/testosteronedef
iciency/index.shtml
http://en.wikipedia.org/
wiki/Testosterone
http://www.jacemedical.
com/articles/Hormonal
%20Health%20and%20
Balance%20Informatio
n.pdf
www.breastcancer.org/t
http://highered.mcgrawhill.com/sites/00724958
55/student_view0/chapt
er28/animation__positiv
e_and_negative_feedba
ck__quiz_1_.html
Alternate Name
Organ responsible for
Secretion
Cell Type
responsible for
Secretion
Target Organ or
Tissue
Human Growth Hormone
Somatotropin
Anterior Pituitary
Somatotropes
All body cells
Somatostatin
Thyroid Hormone
Thyroxine and triiodothyronine
Thyroid Gland
Follicular Cells
All body cells
Blood calcium levels
above normal
Blood calcium levels below
normal
Calcitonin
CT, Calcimar, and Miacalcin
Thyroid Gland
Parafollicular cells
Bone tissue
Danger threatens or in
emergency, physical
threats, and excitement.
Relaxed or calm states of being
Epinephrine
Adrenaline
Adrenal Glands
(adrenal medulla)
Chromaffin cells
Sympathetic
effectors, cardiac and
other muscles
Item # Secretion Initiated by
Secretion Inhibited by
Hormone
34
Control by central nervous
system, occurs in burts,
most released during
early sleep,
Somatostatin an anterior
pituitary regulating hormone
produced in hypothalamus,
35
Circulation of Iodine
36
37
Hormone Illustration
13 OF 16
Target
Organ/Tissue
Illustration
Principle Action
Consequences of
deficieny
Chemical Class
Consequences of excess
Feed Back
System
1
34
Stimulates growth and breakdown of
fat.
Low levels of growth, decreased
bone aging process, and
delayed physical maturation.
Protein
Abnormally increased rates of human
growth (giantism), and Acromegaly
disease.
Negative
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Growth_hormone
35
Regulates the body's metabolic rate,
and the production of heat. TH also
maintains blood pressure and promotes
normal development.
Hypothyroidism ( Cretinism ,
Myxedema)
Peptid
Hyperthyroidism (Grave's Disease)
Negative
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Thyroid_hormone
36
Regulate calcuim and phosphoros
blood levels, stimulates absorption of
calcium by bone.
Decreased bone density,
problems with bone repair and
remodeling, and Osteoporosis.
Polypeptide
Increased calcium blood levels
(hypercalcemia), weakened kidney
function, constipation, and calcium
stones.
Negative
http://www.medicinenet.co
m/calcitonin/article.htm
37
Fight or flight response to stress, also
known as adrenaline. Prepares the
body for increased activity.
May cause low blood glucose
levels, depression, and anxiety.
Amino Acid
Increased heart contraction rate,
constriction of blood vessels,
bronchiole dilation, and increased
metabolic rate.
Negative
http://en.wikipedia.o
rg/wiki/Epinephrine
Item #
14 OF 16
Molecular
Structure
Reference
Item # Secretion Initiated by
Secretion Inhibited by
Hormone
Hormone Illustration
Alternate Name
Organ responsible for
Secretion
Cell Type
responsible for
Secretion
Target Organ or
Tissue
38
Growth horomone (GIHH)
Inhibiting factor (SRIF)
Somatostatin
Growth hormone
Hypothalamus
Neuronedocrine
neurone of the
periventricular nucleus
Digestive system,
Brain, and
Endocrince system
39
Internal-external stimuli
Low levels of secretion
Releasing Hormones
Releasing factor
Hypothalmus
Adrenal Cortex
Throughout the body
40
Stress and anxiety
Corticotropin-releasing hormone
(CRH)
Cortisol / Cortisone
Stress hormone
Adrenal Glands
(adrenal cortex)
Zona fasciculata and
zona reticularis cells.
All tissues
41
Corticosteroids inhibit their
release.
Inhibition by probenecid and
indomethacin
Prostaglandins
Prostaglnadins
Many
All tissues and organs
All tissues and
organs
15 OF 16
Item #
38
1
Target
Organ/Tissue
Illustration
Principle Action
Consequences of
deficieny
Chemical Class
Consequences of excess
Feed Back
System
Molecular
Structure
Regulates the endocrine system and
affects neurotransmission and cell
proliferation
Persistent Helicobacter pylori
infection and reduced
somatostatin in chronic gastritis
Peptide
Persistent Helicobacter pylori
infection and reduced somatostatin in
chronic gastritis
Negative
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih
.gov/pubmed/15533778
http://en.wikipedia.org/
wiki/Somatostatin
Reference
Peptid
Congenital gigantism
Negative
http://emedicine.medsc
ape.com/article/255152overview
http://jcem.endojournal
s.org/cgi/content/abstra
ct/76/1/216
Over inflammation of tissues
Glucocorticoid,
steroid
Can suppress bodys defense system,
including the inflammatory response.
Negative
http://en.wikipedia.org/
wiki/Cortisol
May lead to inflammatory
disease
Peptide
39
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing
Control the release of another hormone
hormone
40
Increase blood sugar and stores of
sugar in the liver as glycogen, and also
suppresses the immune system
41
Contracts and relaxes smooth muscle
tissues, inflammatory
Prostaglandins are harmful and many
diseases are directly linked to
Both negative
excessive inflammation and blood
and positive
clotting
16 OF 16
http://www.endoresolved.com/prostagla
ndins.html