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Living Racial Equality in Islam Qur’anic Basis for Inter-Racial Relationships Inter-racial Relationships in the Life of Prophet Muhammad, pbuh Inter-racial Events in Muslim Communities in History Observations on American Islamic Race-Relations in the US – Yesterday and Today. O mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of God is the most righteous of you. Indeed, God is Knowing and Acquainted. [Quran: 49:13] The Private Quarters Al Hujurat And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth and the diversity of your languages and your colors. Indeed in that are signs for those of knowledge. [Quran 30:22] The Romans Ar-Rum Mankind is naught but a single nation, and God sent Messengers with glad tidings and warnings.”[Quran 2:213] The Cow Al-Baqarah Bilal, Ethiopian Slave Quran: O you who have believed, when [the adhan] is called for the prayer on the day of Jumu'ah [Friday], then proceed to the remembrance of God and leave trade. That is better for you, if you only knew. (2:185) Al-Baqarah The Cow Muhammad, pbuh: After dreaming of a human call-to-prayer, The Prophet appointed a black, freed-slave who had been tortured for believing in Islam to be the first muezzin. The muezzin, ranked just below the Imam. Companions: Among them there were Afro-Arabs, Comorians, Copts (Egyptian), Jewish, Kurdish, Sindhi Jat, Persian, Tamil Chera (Indian), Assyrian Life of Prophet Muhammad, pbuh (Sunnah) Things Muhammad Said (Hadith) Follower: "O Messenger of God, I have neither wealth nor beauty; nor do I have a noble descent or lineage. Who will marry me? And which woman likes to be wife of a poor, short, black ,and ugly man like me?“ Muhammad: “God has changed the individual's worth through Islam. Many people were high-placed in the pre-Islamic society and Islam brought them down. Many were despised non-entities and Islam bestowed them with honor and high rank and brought them up. Islam abolished the un-Islamic discrimination and pride of lineage. Now all people irrespective of their color and origin are equal. Nobody has superiority over others but through piety and obedience to Allah. Among the Muslims, only that person would be higher than you whose virtues and deeds are better than you.” The man eventually married a woman of wealth and high-standing…. Life of Prophet Muhammad, pbuh (Sunnah) Things Muhammad Said (Hadith) -- Continued -- Muhammad’s Farewell Sermon (March 632 CE): "O mankind, your Lord is One and your father is one. You all descended from Adam, and Adam was created from earth. He is most honored among you in the sight of God who is most upright. No Arab is superior to a non-Arab, no [colored] person to a white person, or a white person to a [colored] person except by piety." Summary of Muslim Beliefs on Race (1) All men are created by one and the same eternal God, the supreme Lord of all. (2) All mankind belong to the human race and share equally in the common parentage of Adam and Eve, may God exalt their mention,. (3) God is just and kind to all His creatures. He is not partial to any race or age. The whole universe is His dominion and all people are His creatures. (4) All people are born equal, in the sense that no one brings any possession with him; and they die equal in the sense that they take back nothing of their worldly belongings. (5) God judges every person on the basis of his own merits and according to his own deeds. (6) God has conferred honor and dignity on all men,. Inter-Racial Events in Muslim Communities Moorish Spain – 711-1492 CE Conquering Muslims -- edict assuring subject races Liberty for all – no differences All people on equal footing. Intermarriage acceptable Sephardic Jews – emigrated to Spain ~1000 CE, practiced religion openly. When the Moors (Muslims) forced out, the Catholic regime issued the “Alhambrah Decree of 1492:” All Jews not already converted to Christianity expelled. Moved to Muslim countries: Northern Africa or Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Navy evacuated many Decree voided in 1968 – DNA test for citizenship Interesting contrast with ISIS and Yazidis!?! Hajj While at Hajj, all Muslim men wear the same thing – two white cloths – reminding them that all are equal before God. (Women are allowed to wear whatever color they wish. Most wear white or black.) Life-changing for Malcom X (more about this in a minute)….. Slavery in Islam Pre-Islam – slavery entrenched – region and world Islam: all are equal before God, but slavery not outlawed Carefully controlled under Islam Source – Spoils of war Treatment – Treatment like family Right to freedom – several methods Muslims encouraged to free slaves Penance for sins Charity (personal or community) Slavery essentially outlawed Fiqh (Shariah) – considers public good and cultural norms Contemporaneously with Europe and US Example: Letter to Al Baghdadi/ISIS: Item 12 From Open Letter: To Dr. Ibrahim Awwad Al-Badri, alias ‘Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi’ 19th September 2014 CE 12. Slavery: No scholar of Islam disputes that one of Islam’s aims is to abolish slavery. God says: ‘And what will show you what the obstacle is?, the freeing of a slave, or to give food on a day of hunger’ (Al-Balad, The City, 90:12-14); and: ‘… then [the penalty for them is] the setting free of a slave before they touch one another …’ (Al-Mujadilah, The Pleading Woman, 58:3). The Prophet Muhammad’s Sunnah is that he freed all male and female slaves who were in his possession or whom had been given to him45. For over a century, Muslims, and indeed the entire world, have been united in the prohibition and criminalization of slavery, which was a milestone in human history when it was finally achieved… After a century of Muslim consensus on the prohibition of slavery, you have violated this; you have taken women as concubines and thus revived strife and sedition, and corruption and lewdness on the earth. You have resuscitated something that the Shariah has worked tirelessly to undo and has been considered forbidden by consensus for over a century. Indeed all the Muslim countries in the world are signatories of anti-slavery conventions. God says: ‘… And fulfil the covenant. Indeed the covenant will be enquired into.’ (Al-Isra, The Night Journey, 17: 34) You bear the responsibility of this great crime and all the reactions which this may lead to against all Muslims. Race-Relations in American Islam Slaves from Africa – 10% - 30% Muslim Malcolm X – Nation of Islam/Separatist – Hajj: Racial harmony (1964) – Embraced mainstream Sunni Islam – Most black Muslims followed Mohammad Ali – World Heavyweight Champion – Nation of Islam/Sunni (1975) – Muslim conscientious objector/philanthropist Professional Athletes, Actors, Singers, etc. – Observant/Un-observant Politicians – Keith Ellison, DNC Chairperson? – Andre Carson ~30% of American Muslims ~50% of Converts to Islam in America Race-Relations in American Islam Numerous “non-European” ethnicities are large fractions of many/most American mosques. ISA: Members of 32-ethnicities . How many “races”? Indonesia Pakistan India Saudi Arabia China Malaysia Nigeria Somalia Sudan Turkey Syria Palestine Bangladesh Morocco Algeria Egypt Jordan Afghanistan Kenya USA Etc.. All are considered equal… TEXAS QUESTIONS?