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Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
Conceptual
Physical
Science
5th Edition
Chapter 6:
Thermal Energy
and Thermodynamics
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
The kind of molecular motion having most to do with
temperature is
A.
B.
C.
D.
translational motion.
rotational motion.
internal vibrational motion.
longitudinal motion.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
The kind of molecular motion having most to do with
temperature is
A.
B.
C.
D.
translational motion.
rotational motion.
internal vibrational motion.
longitudinal motion.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
Absolute zero corresponds to a temperature of
A.
B.
C.
D.
0 K.
–273C.
Both of the above.
None of the above.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
Absolute zero corresponds to a temperature of
A.
B.
C.
D.
0 K.
–273C.
Both of the above.
None of the above.
Comment:
At absolute zero, a substance has no more energy to give up.
0 K = –273C.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
In your room is a table, chair, and you. Which of these has
a temperature normally greater than the temperature of the
air in the room?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Table.
Chair.
You.
All have about the same temperature.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
In your room is a table, chair, and you. Which of these has
a temperature normally greater than the temperature of the
air in the room?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Table.
Chair.
You.
All have about the same temperature.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
Heat is simply another word for
A.
B.
C.
D.
temperature.
thermal energy.
thermal energy that flows from hot to cold.
radiant energy.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
Heat is simply another word for
A.
B.
C.
D.
temperature.
thermal energy.
thermal energy that flows from hot to cold.
radiant energy.
Comment:
Be sure to distinguish between temperature, thermal energy, and
flowing thermal energy.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
Thermal energy is normally measured in units of
A.
B.
C.
D.
calories.
joules.
Both of the above.
Neither of the above.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
Thermal energy is normally measured in units of
A.
B.
C.
D.
calories.
joules.
Both of the above.
Neither of the above.
Explanation:
Calories and joules, like miles and meters, are different units for
the same thing. 1 calorie = 4.19 joules.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
If a red hot thumbtack is immersed in warm water, the
direction of heat flow will be from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
warm water to the red hot thumbtack.
red hot thumbtack to the warm water.
no heat flow.
Not enough information.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
If a red hot thumbtack is immersed in warm water, the
direction of heat flow will be from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
warm water to the red hot thumbtack.
red hot thumbtack to the warm water.
no heat flow.
Not enough information.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
The same quantity of heat is added to different amounts of
water in two equal-size containers. The temperature of the
smaller amount of water
A.
B.
C.
D.
decreases more.
increases more.
does not change.
Not enough information.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
The same quantity of heat is added to different amounts of
water in two equal-size containers. The temperature of the
smaller amount of water
A.
B.
C.
D.
decreases more.
increases more.
does not change.
Not enough information.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
You heat a half-cup of tea and its temperature rises by 4C.
How much will the temperature rise if you add the same
amount of heat to a full cup of tea?
A.
B.
C.
D.
0C.
2C.
4C.
8C.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
You heat a half-cup of tea and its temperature rises by 4C.
How much will the temperature rise if you add the same
amount of heat to a full cup of tea?
A.
B.
C.
D.
0C.
2C.
4C.
8C.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
There is twice as much molecular kinetic energy in 2 liters
of boiling water as in 1 liter of boiling water. Which will be
the same for both?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Temperature.
Thermal energy.
Both of the above.
None of the above.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
There is twice as much molecular kinetic energy in 2 liters
of boiling water as in 1 liter of boiling water. Which will be
the same for both?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Temperature.
Thermal energy.
Both of the above.
None of the above.
Explanation:
Average kinetic energy of molecules is the same, which means
temperature is the same for both.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
The first law of thermodynamics is a restatement of the
A.
B.
C.
D.
conservation of energy.
conservation of momentum.
Both of these.
None of the above.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
The first law of thermodynamics is a restatement of the
A.
B.
C.
D.
conservation of energy.
conservation of momentum.
Both of these.
None of the above.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
The second law of thermodynamics tells us that the
direction of heat flow is normally
A.
B.
C.
D.
from hot to cold.
from cold to hot.
independent of temperature.
present with external effort.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
The second law of thermodynamics tells us that the
direction of heat flow is normally
A.
B.
C.
D.
from hot to cold.
from cold to hot.
independent of temperature.
present with external effort.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
The third law of thermodynamics has to do with
A.
B.
C.
D.
the conservation of energy.
the direction of time.
energy dissipation.
absolute zero.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
The third law of thermodynamics has to do with
A.
B.
C.
D.
the conservation of energy.
the direction of time.
energy dissipation.
absolute zero.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
When work is done on a system, compressing air in a tire
pump, for example, the temperature of the system
A.
B.
C.
D.
increases.
decreases.
remains unchanged.
is no longer evident.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
When work is done on a system, compressing air in a tire
pump, for example, the temperature of the system
A.
B.
C.
D.
increases.
decreases.
remains unchanged.
is no longer evident.
Explanation:
In accord with the first law of thermodynamics, work input
increases the energy of the system.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
In nature, high-quality energy tends to transform to
A.
B.
C.
D.
lower-quality energy.
entropy.
time’s arrow.
equally useful forms.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
In nature, high-quality energy tends to transform to
A.
B.
C.
D.
lower-quality energy.
entropy.
time’s arrow.
equally useful forms.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
To say that water has a high specific heat capacity is to say
that water
A.
B.
C.
D.
requires a lot of energy in order to increase in temperature.
gives off a lot of energy in cooling.
has a lot of “thermal inertia.”
All of the above.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
To say that water has a high specific heat capacity is to say
that water
A.
B.
C.
D.
requires a lot of energy in order to increase in temperature.
gives off a lot of energy in cooling.
has a lot of “thermal inertia.”
All of the above.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
Hot sand cools off faster at night than plants and
vegetation. This indicates the specific heat capacity for
sand is
A.
B.
C.
D.
less than that of plants.
more than that of plants.
likely the same as that of plants.
unknown, because there is not enough information.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
Hot sand cools off faster at night than plants and
vegetation. This indicates the specific heat capacity for
sand is
A.
B.
C.
D.
less than that of plants.
more than that of plants.
likely the same as that of plants.
unknown, because there is not enough information.
Explanation:
Lower specific heat means less resistance to change.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
Aluminum has a specific heat capacity more than twice that
of copper. If equal amounts of heat are given to equal
masses of aluminum and copper, the metal that more
rapidly increases in temperature is
A.
B.
C.
D.
aluminum.
copper.
neither—actually, both will increase at the same rate.
None of the above.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
Aluminum has a specific heat capacity more than twice that
of copper. If equal amounts of heat are given to equal
masses of aluminum and copper, the metal that more
rapidly increases in temperature is
A.
B.
C.
D.
aluminum.
copper.
neither—actually, both will increase at the same rate.
None of the above.
Explanation:
Copper has about half the “thermal inertia” of aluminum.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
The high specific heat capacity of water has great
importance in
A.
B.
C.
D.
climates.
cooling systems.
ocean currents.
All of the above.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
The high specific heat capacity of water has great
importance in
A.
B.
C.
D.
climates.
cooling systems.
ocean currents.
All of the above.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
Which of these locations tends to have lower extremes in
yearly temperature?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Dallas, Texas.
Sacramento, California.
St. Louis, Missouri.
Honolulu, Hawaii.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
Which of these locations tends to have lower extremes in
yearly temperature?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Dallas, Texas.
Sacramento, California.
St. Louis, Missouri.
Honolulu, Hawaii.
Comment:
Hawaii is an island where climate is moderate, thanks to water’s
high specific heat.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
The thermal expansion of steel is about the same as that of
A.
B.
C.
D.
water.
air.
concrete.
All of the above.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
The thermal expansion of steel is about the same as that of
A.
B.
C.
D.
water.
air.
concrete.
All of the above.
Explanation:
This fact is important to civil engineers in the construction of
concrete that is reinforced with steel rods.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
When stringing telephone lines between poles in the
summer, it is advisable to allow the lines to
A.
B.
C.
D.
sag.
be taut.
be close to the ground.
allow ample space for birds.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
When stringing telephone lines between poles in the
summer, it is advisable to allow the lines to
A.
B.
C.
D.
sag.
be taut.
be close to the ground.
allow ample space for birds.
Explanation:
Telephone lines are longer in a warmer summer and shorter in a
cold winter. Hence, they sag more on hot summer days than in
winter. If the lines are not strung with enough sag in summer, they
might contract too much and snap during the winter—especially
when carrying ice.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
A bimetallic strip consists of a strip of metal composed of
A.
B.
C.
D.
an alloy of brass and iron.
braided brass and iron wires flattened into a strip.
a brass strip welded along its length to an iron strip.
a strip of metal with brass on one end, iron on the other end.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
A bimetallic strip consists of a strip of metal composed of
A.
B.
C.
D.
an alloy of brass and iron.
braided brass and iron wires flattened into a strip.
a brass strip welded along its length to an iron strip.
a strip of metal with brass on one end, iron on the other end.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
The fact that gasoline will overflow from an automobile tank
on a hot day is evidence that the expansion of gasoline is
A.
B.
C.
D.
more than the tank material.
about the same as the tank material.
less than the tank material.
nonexistent.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
The fact that gasoline will overflow from an automobile tank
on a hot day is evidence that the expansion of gasoline is
A.
B.
C.
D.
more than the tank material.
about the same as the tank material.
less than the tank material.
nonexistent.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
Microscopic slush in water tends to make the water
A.
B.
C.
D.
more dense.
less dense.
more slippery.
warmer.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
Microscopic slush in water tends to make the water
A.
B.
C.
D.
more dense.
less dense.
more slippery.
warmer.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
The greatest expansion of water occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
it turns to ice.
it cools at 4C.
it warms at 4C.
None of the above.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
The greatest expansion of water occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
it turns to ice.
it cools at 4C.
it warms at 4C.
None of the above
Comment:
Sure, ice water expands a bit until it reaches 4°C, but the
expansion of water when it turns to ice is much greater.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
Water at 4C will expand when it is slightly
A.
B.
C.
D.
cooled.
warmed.
Both of the above.
None of the above.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
Water at 4C will expand when it is slightly
A.
B.
C.
D.
cooled.
warmed.
Both of the above.
None of the above.
Comment:
The density of 4C water will also decrease when slightly cooled
or warmed.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
Water at 4C will sink to the bottom of a pond because
A.
B.
C.
D.
of thermal currents.
of the absence of thermal currents at low temperatures.
like a rock, it is denser than surrounding water.
of the presence of microscopic ice crystals.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
Water at 4C will sink to the bottom of a pond because
A.
B.
C.
D.
of thermal currents.
of the absence of thermal currents at low temperatures.
like a rock, it is denser than surrounding water.
of the presence of microscopic ice crystals.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
When a sample of 0C water is heated, it first
A.
B.
C.
D.
expands.
contracts.
remains unchanged.
Not enough information.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
When a sample of 0C water is heated, it first
A.
B.
C.
D.
expands.
contracts.
remains unchanged.
Not enough information.
Explanation:
Water continues to contract until it reaches a temperature of 4C.
With further increase in temperature beyond 4C, water then
expands.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
When a sample of 4C water is cooled, it
A.
B.
C.
D.
expands.
contracts.
remains unchanged.
Not enough information.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
When a sample of 4C water is cooled, it
A.
B.
C.
D.
expands.
contracts.
remains unchanged.
Not enough information.
Explanation:
Parts of the water will crystallize and occupy more space.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
A metal ring has a gap in it, looking like the letter C. The
ring expands when it is heated. Interestingly, the gap
A.
B.
C.
D.
becomes narrower.
expands also, as much as if metal filled the gap.
expands, but less than if metal filled it.
keeps its size, neither expanding or shrinking.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conceptual Physical Science 5e — Chapter 6
A metal ring has a gap in it, looking like the letter C. The
ring expands when it is heated. Interestingly, the gap
A.
B.
C.
D.
becomes narrower.
expands also, as much as if metal filled the gap.
expands, but less than if metal filled it.
keeps its size, neither expanding or shrinking.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.