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Chapter 4 Mesopotamia
Lesson 2: Mesopotamian
Chapter 4 Lesson 2 Previewwww
I. The First Empires
A. The city-states of Sumer often
fought each other.
1. By 2400 B.C. the fighting
weakened these city-states.
2. The kingdom of Akkad was in
northern Mesopotamia. Akkad's
leader, Sargon, and his armies
fought the city-states of Sumer.
3. Sargon defeated them all.
4. He united Akkad and Sumer to form an
5. An empire is a group of different lands
under one ruler.
6. The empire of Sargon was the first
known empire ever formed.
7. The empire grew to include all of
Mesopotamia. It lasted for more than
200 years.
8. A people called the Amorites
lived in a region west of
Mesopotamia and took over
Mesopotamia in the 1800s BC.
These people built their own cities.
9. The biggest of these cities was Babylon.
Hammurabi was a king of Babylon.
10. He took over many of the Amorite cities
and formed the Babylonian Empire.
B. Code of Hammurabi
1. Hammurabi was a fair ruler.
2. He made a code of laws for his
3. A code is a system or set of laws.
4. The Code of Hammurabi had
laws for many different things. It
had laws for crimes, farming, and
5. The code had a punishment for
each crime.
6. The code called for “an eye for an eye, and
a tooth for a tooth.” This means that if a man
knocked out the teeth of someone, then the
man would have his own teeth knocked out
as punishment.
7. The Code of Hammurabi
shaped later law codes,
including those of Greece and
There were 282 laws under
Babylon was located between the
Euphrates and Tigris Rivers, in southern
Ancient Babylon:
Babylon Today:
C. The Assyrian Empire
1. The Assyrians lived in northern
2. They built a large, powerful army.
3. Around 900 BC, this army
started to take over Mesopotamia.
4. The Assyrians destroyed towns.
They robbed people and set crops
on fire.
5. The Assyrians forced the
people they defeated to pay them
money. This forced payment is
called a tribute.
6. The Assyrian army was so strong
because they made their weapons out of
iron. Before this, people made weapons out
of tin or copper. Iron is much stronger than
tin or copper.
7. Nineveh was the major city of the
Assyrian Empire and was located
along the Tigris River.
8. The empire was ruled by a king
and was divided into regions called
9. The Assyrians used law codes that had harsh
10. The Assyrians worshiped the same gods as the
11. The Assyrians built large temples and
palaces and wrote stories.
12. They put these works in a large library in
Nineveh. It was one of the first libraries in
the world. The Assyrians did a large amount
of trading, bringing in in wood and metal
from far away.
13. They used these materials
to make buildings, tools, and
D. The Chaldean Empire
1. The Assyrian Empire lasted for about 300
2. Around 650 B.C. the Assyrians began to
argue about who would be the next ruler.
Their arguments turned into fights and
weakened the empire.
3. While the Assyrians were divided, a group
of people called the Chaldeans fought the
Assyrians and defeated them.
4. The Chaldeans took over the lands held by
the Assyrians and moved the capital to
5. The empire of the Chaldeans is
sometimes called the New Babylonian
Empire. King Nabopolassar was the first
ruler. After he died, his son took control. His
son was named Nebuchadnezzar.
Below: King Nabopolassar
Below: King Nebuchadnezzar
E. King Nebuchadnezzar and Babylon
1. King Nebuchadnezzar rebuilt Babylon,
making it the largest and richest city in the
world. Large walls surrounded the city.
2. Babylon had many temples and
3. King Nebuchadnezzar built the
Hanging Gardens of Babylon.
These gardens had many levels.
4. The plants were watered by an
irrigation system.
5. A major trade route went through Babylon.
As a result, many caravans passed through
the city. A caravan is a group of traveling
merchants. The merchants brought goods to
Babylon including cloth, baskets, and
6. Babylon grew rich from this trade.
F. Babylonian Scientific Advances
1. Chaldean astronomers studied the
stars, planets, and the moon and made
the first sundial to measure time.
2. They also were the first to use a sevenday week.
Contributions of the New
Babylonian Empire
Built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Promoted trade
Studied the stars, planets, and the moon
Made the first sundial
First to follow a seven-day week
Ancient Walls
of Babylon
• END of Chapter 4 Lesson 2 PPT
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