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Transcript
VERTEBRAL COLUMN
THORACIC VERTEBRAE
(Human Osteology)
Typical
• T2-R8 (T Coetzee)
• Body
–
–
–
–
Heart shaped
Demi-facets for heads of the ribs
Superior costal facet-for lower facet of head of same no rib
Inferior costal facet-for upper facet of head of succeeding
rib
• Vertebral foramina
– Are the smallest in entire v/c
Typical
• Pedicles
– Flattened from side to side
• Inferior vertebral notch
– Deeper than superior notch
• Laminae
– Short, broad, imbricated (overlap)
• Spinous processes
– Long, slopes inferiorly
Typical
• Transverse processes
– Rounded extremities
– Ant=small round costal facet for tubercle of same
no rib
– Superior facet-directed posteriorly
– Inferior facet-directed inferiorly
Atypical
• T1,9,10,11,12 (T Coetzee)
•
•
•
•
T1
Whole facets sup: for head of R1
Demi-facets inf: for upper facet of R2
Rest is typical
• T9
• Typical except for:
• Has a large demi-facet on the upper part of its body for R9
Atypical
•
•
•
•
T10,11,12
Whole facets on each side of the body & pedicles for the same no rib
T10 also has a facet on its transverse process for the tubercles of R10
T11,T12 have no facets on transverse processes
– Have sup, inf & lateral tubercles corresponding to the mamillary, accessory
transverse procecesses of the lumbar vertebrae.
• T11 compared to T12
• T11 inferior articular process is thoracic and points inferiorly
• T12 inferior articular process is lumbar in appearance
VERTEBRAL COLUMN
LUMBAR VERTEBRAE
(Human Osteology)
Typical
• L1-4 (T Coetzee)
• Body
– Largest in v/c
– Kidney shaped
– Wider side to side
• Vertebral foramina
– Intermediate size i.e betw cx & tx
Typical
• Pedicles
– Flattened from sup to inf
• Inferior vertebral notch
– Not equal compared to thoracic
• Laminae
– Short, do not overlap
• Spinous processes
– Massive, do not overlap
Typical
• Transverse processes
– Flattened
– Accessory process
– Mamillary process
ATypical
• L5 (T Coetzee)
– Deeper in front coinciding with the sacral angle
– Characteristic feature: wide separation of the inferior
articular processes to articulate with the sacrum
• Transverse process
– Short
– Pyramidal
• Spinous process
– Small
– Rounded