yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Drosophila embryogenesis wikipedia, lookup

Scapula wikipedia, lookup

Anatomical terminology wikipedia, lookup

Anatomical terms of location wikipedia, lookup

Vertebra wikipedia, lookup

General features of vertebrae & curvatures of vertebral
Vertebral Column (Spine)
• Collection of vertebrae
• Forms the central axis
• Supports skull
• Gives attachment to
Thoracic cage by ribs
Upper limb by pectoral girdle
Lower limb by pelvic girdle
• Flexible due to various joints b/w vertebrae
• Contains spinal cord in its cavity
Vertebral Column (Spine)
• Made up of five regions
– Cervical
– Thoracic (Dorsal)
– Lumbar
– Sacral
– Coccygeal
Spinal Curvatures
• Primary curvature
– Anterior flexion in fetus
– Persist in adults in
Sacral &
• Secondary curvatures
– Anterior convexity (Lordosis) in adults
– Develop in
Cervical &
Relation of
Nerve Roots
Spinal Cord &
General Characteristics of a Vertebra
Vertebra consists of two essential parts:
an anterior segment, the body
a posterior part, the vertebral or neural arch
these two together enclose a foramen, the vertebral foramen.
vertebral foramina constitute a canal for the protection of the
spinal cord
Vertebral body
• More or less cylindrical in shape.
• Its upper and lower surfaces are flattened and
• Give attachment to the intervertebral
convex from side to side
concave from above downward
• Anterior surface presents a few small apertures, for the
passage of nutrient vessels
• On the posterior surface is a single large, irregular aperture for the exit
of the basi-vertebral veins from the body of the vertebra.
Intervertebral discs
(or intervertebral fibrocartilage)
• Lie between adjacent vertebrae in the spine.
• Each disc forms a cartilaginous joint to allow slight movement of the
vertebrae, and acts as a ligament to hold the vertebrae
The vertebral arch
 Consists of a pair of pedicles and a pair of laminæ
 Supports seven processes
Four articular
Two transverse
one spinous.
• Two short, thick processes,
project backward, one on either side,
• project from the upper part of the body, at the junction
of its posterior and lateral surfaces.
• Concavities above and below the pedicles are named
the vertebral notches
• When the vertebrae are articulated, the superior and inferior
notches of each contiguous pair of bones form the intervertebral
• through it spinal nerve leaves the vertebral
canal as ventral and dorsal rami
• Two broad plates directed backward and medially
from the pedicles.
fuse in the midline posteriorly, and so complete the
posterior boundary of the vertebral foramen.
• Their upper borders and the lower parts of their
anterior surfaces are rough for the attachment of the
ligamenta flava
• Single Spinous Process
• Paired Transverse Processes
• Paired Superior Articular Processes
• Paired Inferior Articular Processes
• Is directed backward and downward from the
junction of the laminæ
serves for the attachment of muscles (which are
extensors of vertebral column)and ligaments.
• Two superior and two inferior, spring from the
junctions of the pedicles and laminæ.
• The superior project upward, and their superior
articular facets backwardare directed more or less
The inferior project downward, and their
inferior articular facets look more or less
• The articular surfaces are coated with hyaline cartilage.
• Two in number
project one at either side from the point where
the lamina joins the pedicle, between the superior
and inferior articular processes.
serve for the attachment of ligaments &
muscles( that cause lateral bending and rotation
of vertebral column)