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History of the Middle East I. The Prophet Muhammad Life of Muhammad • Born 570 AD in Mecca, Saudi Arabia • Orphaned at 6, married Khadijah who was 15 years older • 610 AD, during the Arabic month of Ramadan, had his first vision of the Angel Gabriel • Nephew Ali was an early convert • Muslim: one who submits to Gods will Muhammad’s Hijra • Meccans thought he would disrupt pilgrimage to the Ka’bah. • Ka’bah: black box full of pagan idols in Mecca • Muhammad had another vision where he went to heaven from Jerusalem at the Temple Mount and visited Moses • 620 AD, In trouble at Mecca, people from Medina ask Muhammad to arbitrate an argument • 622 AD, Muhammad leaves for Medina (Hijra) • Observes Yom Kippur and faces Jerusalem when praying Conquest of Mecca • In Media, Muhammad could not farm. Raided caravans to Mecca. • Battle of Badr, Muhammad defeats a force from Mecca • 629 AD: He takes Mecca without bloodshed Mohammad’s Personal Life • Wife died in 619 AD (Khadijah) • Took 9 more wives • Married for alliances and married widows of his slain friends. (9) • Died in 632 AD • No pictures of Mohammad. • False Idols II. Islam What is Islam What is Islam? • Islam; act of submission to the will of god • Believe in angles and jinns (spirits) • Devil is called Iblis, al-Shayton. Devil is a fallen angel whose job is to corrupt men and women. (seems to be doing well) • Believe that the Bible and the Torah are corrupted and the Quran is the corrected version. (Hadith) • Muhammad is the last of the prophets: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jonah, Job, and Jesus • Believe in Jesus but not as the son of god, Jesus will come again on Judgment Day to fight Satan (warrior) Five Pillars of Islam I) Witness: There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is God’s messenger (prophet) II) Worship: pray 5 times a day towards Mecca. Friday at noon in public III) Fasting: during the month of Ramadan, during the day. Are exceptions IV) Tithing: tax to help the needy (10%) (sharing) V) Pilgrimage (Hijra): pilgrimage to Mecca once in lifetime to the Ka’bah The Sixth Pillar: Jihad VI. Jihad: struggle in the way of God Quran (9:29): fight against those who do not believe in God or the Judgment day, and those who refuse allegiance to the true faith” Jews and Christians? Quran also says to be lenient towards Jews and Christians Muslim conquerors did not convert nonMuslims. Lived peacefully and protected them Quran lays done harsh penalties for murder Succession to Muhammad • • • • Abu-Bakr was the first Caliph Caliph: leader of Islam Ali: nephew of Muhammad Sunni: believe in Abu-Bakr as heir, more conservative • Shi’i: believe Ali is true successor and that family ancestors of Muhammad should rule as Imans • Today, no Arab nation and no Caliph Main Causes of Middle East Conflict 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Incomplete transition from religious communities to nation states Many Middle East people believe that their governments are illegitimate Quest for dignity and freedom from countries that have endured subjection and are determined never to lose independence again Problems that come from outside governments that try to help but don’t Growing concentration of highly destructive weapons in a region that is volatile and vulnerable Section III III. Creation of Israel Palestine after WWII • Jewish Agency – group supporting immigration of survivors of the Holocaust to Palestine • British promised a state of Palestine (Arab) • Jewish Agency condemned it – illegal immigration Zionist Movement • Zionism: movement for a Jewish Nation • Stern Gang and Irgun – Zionist terrorist groups actively attacked the British • 1946 – blew up the King David Hotel in Jerusalem Arab and Jewish Bitterness • Palestine is called the “twice promised land” Both Arabs and Jews claim it • Balfour Declaration: British support Zionism. Enter the US • • • • British asked US for help Thought we would support Palestine We supported a bilingual, bi-national state Both Arabs and Zionists rejected it. Jewish and Arab Bitterness • Many Muslim and Jewish religious sites located in Jerusalem • Western Wall (Jewish), remains of the 2nd Jewish Temple • Dome of the Rock (Muslim) and the Temple Mount(Jewish) Israeli War for Independence • May 14, 1948: Israel is created out of Palestine by the UN with all five Arab UN members voting against it • Next day, 5 Arab countries invaded Israel. • Peace at last but everyone forgets about the Palestinian Arabs • Jordan absorbs Palestine lands • PLO is formed: Palestine Liberation Organization (Yasir Arafat) Wants an independent state of Palestine 1967 War (6 Days War) • Nasser of Egypt asks UN peacekeepers to leave Israel/Egypt Border • King Hussein of Jordan flies to Egypt for a talk with Nassir. • Looks like a war? • June 5, 1967: Israel, in a pre-emptive attack, strikes Egypt, Jordan and Syria • War is over in 6 days. • Israel occupies (3 Occupied Territories) the Sinai peninsula from Egypt(Gaza strip), West Bank from Jordan (Old City of Jerusalem), and the Golan Heights from Syria The Rise of Sadat • 1969: Golda Meir became Prime Minister of Israel and brings US/Israel ties closer • 1971: Anwar Sadat becomes leader of Egypt • Sadat wants the Sinai Peninsula back • Egypt, Syria, and Jordan attack during the Jewish holiday of Yon Kippur The Yon Kippur War • October 1973 • Syria, Jordan, and Egypt attack Israel during the Jewish holiday of Yon Kippur • Arabs did not know that they would do so good so they did not know what to do next. • Israel, because of the Holidays, called up their reserves fast. • Israel went on the offensive and actually crossed the Suez Canal. • US sold arms to Israel and in return OPEC started a trade embargo on oil. • By 1978 – Sadat visits Israel and restarts peace process Egypt Under Sadat • 1978 – Jimmy Carter invites Egypt and Israel to US • 1979 – Camp David Peace Accords – Egypt and Israel peace agreement – still holds today • 1981 – feeling betrayed, Sadat assassinated by his own people • Replaced by Hosni Mubarak Iranian Revolution • 1951- Dr. Mohammad Mosaddeq tried to establish a nationalized government and throw UK out and free Iran from foreign influence – Pan-Arabism • UK and US (CIA) overthrew him and but the young Shah into power • US and UK wanted Iran to lead Middle East • Shah a bad ruler, modernization, economic downturn, and Islamic fundamentalism led to revolt in 1979 Ayatollah Khumeini (IRAN) • 1979: Ayatollah Khumeini took over the US backed Shah of Iran • Militant students over ran the US embassy in Tehran and took 63 hostages • Carter’s rescue mission failed • On the day Regan took office, all the hostages were released. The Rise of Saddam Hussein and the Iran Iraq war (First Persian Gulf War) • Ba’ath party – Pan-Arab party takes power in Iraq in 1968 • Saddam, took power in 1979 (Security) • Attacked Iran in 1980 to get land back • War ended in 1988 with Iraq the biggest military in Middle East • Invade Kuwait in 1991 (Second Persian Gulf War) Israel and Palestine Conflict • • • • • • • • • • • • PLO operates out of Lebanon attacking Isreal 1982 – Israel invades Lebanon and force PLO out in 1985 Israel starts allowing settlers to move into occupied territories 1987 – PLO starts the intifada violent demonstrations against Israel 1992 – Yitzak Rabin elected Prime Minister of Israel 1993 – Arafat and Rabin sign Oslo – PLO recognizes Israel – self govern for PLO PLO becomes legit – the Palestine Authority 1995 – Rabin is assassinated by an Israeli Jew 2000 – second intifada and Arafat sentenced to house arrest 2004 – Arafat dies – mysteriously – Mahamoud Abbas PLO – splits and becomes Fatah party and the Hamas party 2010 – Fatah controls Palestine and Hamas control West Bank The US and the Middle East Terrorism and the US • 2 basic schools of Terrorism 1) Terrorism can be deterred by striking back at its perpetrators and cowering them into submission 2) The only way to stop terrorists are to cure the conditions that cause it. • If you give in to terrorism, there will be more terrorist attacks. Terrorism and the US Con’t • 1983: truck bombs kills over 214 US marines in Beirut barracks. US was there on NATO peacekeeping mission • 1989 – Airplane explosion in Lockerbie, Scotland (Libya) • 1993: bomb explodes in the New York World Trade Center killing 6. Plan was to have one tower fall into another. No retaliation • 1998: Within 9 minutes of each other US embassy’s in Kenya and Tanzania are hit by truck bombs Terrorism and the US Con’t (Online Assignment ME1) • US retaliate by cruise missile strikes at Afghanistan (camps) and Algeria (factory) • Middle East response is to love bin Laden more • 2000: Aden, Yemen; USS Cole is struck by two suicide bombers. 17 crew men dead • September 11, 2001: 3000 people dead • Bush 1 Bush 2 Soviet - Afghanistan War • 1979: Communist take over Afghanistan during the Cold War • US sees it as a chance to give Soviets their “Vietnam” • US supports the Mujahedin, Muslim soldiers from around the ME (250,000) • US gets help from a young Saudi, Usama bin Laden • 10 year war rages with the Soviets leaving • 1996: Taliban (Muslim religious group) takes over Afghanistan Desert Storm • 1991: Iraq invades Kuwait • Saudi Arabia asks for the US to help • UN coalition decides attack is aggression and authorizes force to expel Iraq only • 100 hours war leaves the Iraqis on the run • Usama bin Laden sees US on Saudi soil as soiling holy land Usama bin Laden • Mujahedin: roaming soldiers of Allah after Afghanistan war. Could not go home. • Become the moral and military guardians of the Islam world • Form terrorist coalition called Al-Qaida • Al-Qaida is well organize and establish 40 camps in Afghanistan to train terrorists • Usama bin Laden decrees that there is no difference between military and civilian targets in US • A Jihad is called: Holy war, war against personal vices, armed struggle, Crusade. • May 2nd, 2011: after years on the run, Navy Seal Team Six catch and kill Osama Bin Laden in Pakistan. 2001 Invasion of Afghanistan • After the 9/11 attacks – the US invaded Afghanistan and destroyed the Taliban October 2001 • Helped by the Afghanistan Northern Alliance • Failed to capture bin Laden in a cave complex in Tora Bora • 2010, Obama orders 30,000 more troops there • President Hamid Karzai asks for a lessor US role and President Obama cuts troops levels to 10,000. • 2014 - New President Ashraf Ghani allows US to keep US drones and airplanes to help Afghan troops fight the Taliban. US Invasion of Iraq (Third Persian Gulf War) • March 2003 – US and UK invade Iraq with the goal of ending the Ba’ath Party rule and remove Saddam Hussein from power (Dec 13th) • Iraq insurgency turns popular opinion against the war in US • 2007, Bush putting General Petraeus in charge, sends additional troops to Iraq to restore security (Bush troop surge) it works • During the current transitional period – Iraq has been plagued by violence from Sunni insurgents and Al-Qaeda terrorist network. • August 2010, Obama declares armed role of US in Iraq over, troop levels fall to 50,000. • December 15th, 2011 – last US troops leave Irag. • 2012 – a group called ISIS goes on the offensive and takes over Arab Spring • Started in Tunisia on December 18th 2010. • Mohamed Bouazizi – an unemployed graduate student self-immolated himself after he was roughed up by police for selling vegetables without a permit • Arab Spring – a series of demonstrations and protest throughout the middle east by mainly unemployed youth upset over corruption, unemployment, oppressive government, poverty, human rights violations • Most started by young educated people Arab Spring Timeline • • • • • • • • • • • • Dec 2010 – Tunsia – Ben Ali resigns Jan 2011 – Egypt – Mubarak resigns (Tahrir Square) Jan 2011 – Libya – Civil War erupts October 2011 – Libya – Gaddafi killed Feb 2011 – protests start in Syria against Assad – maybe 3,000 people killed, Civil War close – children tortured Nov 2011 – Egypt Elections – Muslim Brotherhood. Dec 2012 – Arab League sends “observers” to Libya Jordan, Israel, Algeria, Oman, Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Iran Led to regime change and many figures not running again. October 2011 – Occupy Wall Street Saudi Arabia – women movement Should I add US invasion Iraq 2003? US and Terrorism • September 12, 2012 – Riots break out in Egypt and Libya against a so called antiMuhammad web video produced in the US. • US ambassador to Libya Christopher Stevens is killed trying to flee as a mortar round hits his car killing all inside. • Town of Benghazi ISIS • Started in 1999 and in 2004 became al-Qaeda in Iraq • Took part in the Iraq insurgency against US troops in Iraq • By 2010 ISIS almost defeated and leadership was killed – lowest number of people killed in insurgency • By 2012 – regrouped and formed with former Saddam Hussein Iraqi army commanders and relied less on foreign fighters (Sunni’s). Online ME2 • July 2013 – broke into Iraqi prisons (Abu Ghraib) and freed over 500 veterans of the Iraqi insurgency. • June 2014 broke away with al-Qaeda and officially became ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) • Today they hold large areas of Syria and Northern Iraq The Islamic State • On June 29th, 2014 – ISIL proclaims itself a Worldwide Caliphate and its leader Caliph Ibrahim. • Caliphate – claims religious, political, and military authority over all Muslims worldwide. • Very violent – Charlie Hebdo (France) Online ME3 • October 2014, ISIS advanced to 15 miles from Baghdad forcing the US to put troops into Iraq to stop a total collapse. • Libyan city of Derna and a militant group in Egypt has pledged to ISIL. • They have a presence in Afghanistan and Yemen (which recently collapsed) ISIS • January 2014, President Obama calls ISIS the “JV” team. • October 31st – a bomb goes off on a plane leaving Egypt to Russia killing 224. • November 12th, 2015 – President Obama calls ISIS contained • On November 13th, two suicide bombers kill over 40 people and wound 200 in Beirut. • Also on the 13th, 5 separate attacks in Paris kill over 129 people and injure over 300. • President Obama calls it a “ setback” Why the rise of ISIS? • • • • • After the end of British, French, and Ottoman imperial rule in the early to mid-20th century, Arab leaders failed to establish anything like stable democratic societies. Instead, they imposed unpopular and brutal military dictatorships that prevented any real sense of national unity developing and squandered the region's economic potential. The Middle East's progressive and democratic parties failed, due to a combination of incompetence and interference, to put together a viable alternative to these regimes. This created a large population of people in the Middle East who were disenfranchised and looking for a new form of politics. During and after the Cold War, Islamism rose to fill that void: It appealed to an identity and a set of values that many in the Middle East shared and understood. This was part of a global revival of different forms of identity politics. Some governments — like Saudi Arabia's quasi-monarchy, quasi-theocracy — had an interest in helping spreading a fairly hard-line version of Islam, as it shored up domestic legitimacy. Radical Islamism also got a boost from foreign powers, as things like US support for Iran's brutal shah and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan created understandable resentment that radicals were wellpositioned to support. More recently, the 2003 US invasion of Iraq and the Arab Spring threw the Middle East’s normal geopolitical order into chaos, creating a vacuum in which sectarianism became a powerful force. ISIS flourished in this kind of religiously polarized chaos, bringing us to the point we're at today.