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Interpersonal
Communication
Friend and Cook, 2003
Chapter Two
What is so hard about talking to
each other anyway?
Chapter Overview
• In this chapter we will explore basic models of
communication, learn about a personal frame
of reference, think more deeply about what it
means to listen, how we send messages both
verbally and non-verbally, and review principles
to guide effective communication.
Models of Communication
• Common Attributes
•
• Process of exchange between sender and receiver
• The message is the totally of all form sent (verbal &
nonverbal, tone, expressions, noise and gestures).
Important Facets of Message
Communication
• Channel: ___________________(visual/auditory can be other
sense too)
• Noise: anything that distorts or interferes with the message.
• Continuous Feedback:
• Multichannel: words match non-words? Congruency vs
dissonance?
Movie time
Communication Types
• Unilateral communication
• One-way: speaker to listener
•
• Examples????
• Directive communication
• Face to face still one-way
• Transactional communication
• Two-Way reciprocal interaction
• Mutual influence towards shared meaning
Prerequisites to Effective
Communication
• Frame of Reference
• The course material is one source of reference
•
•
• Some of you have already identified you like co-teaching or
you do not like it. That is one example of a preconceived
idea that influences your communication on that particular
topic.
Diversity Issues
 Frame of reference also refers to your multi-cultural
awareness, your cultural identity and how much
experience you may have had interacting with people
from diverse backgrounds.
 See chart on page 33 to examine individualistic vs.
collectivistic communication styles
Selective Perception
• You can not process everything that happens around you.
There is too much going on to take it all in. You filter stimuli
through your perceptual awareness.
• Our perception varies because of personal sensory limitations,
previous experiences, old beliefs and expectations, and how
open we are to new information.
• Mostly we are wired to focus on similarity and change.
Communication Skills
• Listening
• Can you recall the difference in your experience
when you have felt listened to and not listened too?
• Listening is the foundation for all relationships.
Rationale for Listening
• Builds Rapport
•
• Sufficient and Accurate Information is
Exchanged
• What do assumptions do?????
• Not Listening Communicates Uncaring Attitude
Factors that Interfere with
Listening
• Rehearsing a response
•
• Stumbling on “hot” words
•
• Begin distracted by extraneous details
Improving Your Listening Skills
• Recognize the meta-cognitive component
•
•
•
•
•
Mentally Prepare
Mentally Rehearse
Categorize Information
Make Notes of Informational Details
Use Signals for Cues to Remembering
Nonverbal Communication
• Nonverbal cues
• Body movement
• Facial Expression, Eye Contact, Postures, and Gestures
• Vocal Cues
• Quality of Voice & Pacing/Flow
•
• Use of Silence
• Spatial Relations
• Physical Distance
Spatial Relations
• Intimate Distance
•
•
• Public Distance
Nonverbal Communication Principles
• Congruence
• Matching nonverbal meesgae to verbal one
• Individualism
• Respect for unique perspectives on common events
Verbal Communication Principles
• Concreteness
• Clear
• Specific
Neutrality
• Nonjudgmental
• Accepting
Summary
• Study Communication
•
•
•
• Adapt to Meet the Task and the Relationship