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Transcript
Chemistry 371A – Physical Chemistry
Fall 2002
Lecture: Mon, Wed, Fri 10 – 10:50 PH3-119
Dr. Christopher R. Brazier
Office: PH3-201
Phone: (562) 985-2115
E-mail: [email protected]
Web: http://www.csulb.edu/~cbrazier
Office hours: Mon, Wed, Fri 11-12 and Tue, Thu 1-2
Course Philosophy:
The purpose of physical chemistry is to explain and interpret the observed
chemical and physical properties of matter. To do this we will develop conceptual
and mathematical models to simulate the real world.
Text Books:
Ira N. Levine, “Physical Chemistry,” 5th edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2002.
Clyde R. Metz, “Schaum’s Outline of Physical Chemistry,” 2nd edition, McGrawHill, New York, 1989, (optional).
The topics to be covered during this semester include:
Thermodynamics
The First Law of Thermodynamics
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Material Equilibrium
Standard Thermodynamic Functions of Reaction
Reaction Equilibrium in Ideal Gas Mixtures
One-Component Phase Equilibrium
Real Gases
Solutions
Nonideal Solutions
Reaction Equilibrium in Nonideal Systems
Multicomponent Phase Equilibrium
Surface Chemistry
Electrochemical Systems
Prerequisite Courses:
CHEM 111A, CHEM 111B, and CHEM 251 with a grade of C or better. MATH 122,
MATH 123, and MATH 224 (may be taken concurrently). PHYS 151 and PHYS
152. Your textbooks from these classes will be useful as background material for
some of the topics that are discussed in this class.
Lectures:
Read the assigned material before coming to class. The lecture should then help
crystallize the ideas and answer questions that may have arisen in your mind. As
near to the completion of the lecture as feasible, review your notes and make
sure everything is clear. Add clarifying comments if necessary. If you do not
understand something and the book doesn't solve your problem, come and see
me. I am more than willing to help you.
Homework:
Problem solving is the most important part of physical chemistry. Over 30% of
the grade in this class is based on homework, so it is vital that you make your
best attempt on every problem. If you are not sure about a problem please come
ask, I am always willing to help. A homework assignment will be given every
week except exam weeks. These are to be turned in at the end of the
period on the due date. No homework will be accepted after the
answer key is handed out. You may consult with other students on the
homework problems, but the work you turn in must be clearly your own. The
problems are designed to aid you in your understanding of the material. Similar
problems have a habit of appearing on examinations as well. Each homework
problem is worth at least 2 points, extra points may be awarded for more
challenging problems.
Exams:
There will be 3 take home examinations each worth 100 points and a final worth
150 points. The final will be a standardized examination in thermodynamics, 40
multiple choice questions with the score appropriately scaled. You will receive
the take home exams 1 week before they are due. There will be no lecture on
the days the take home exams are due so that you may ask questions, however
you should have at least attempted all of the problems by this time. Take home
exams are due by 5 PM on the days listed. All work on take home exams must
be your own, you may not discuss the questions with anyone other than myself.
Any unauthorized communication or collaboration will result in a zero on that
exam.
Withdrawing from class:
See attached CNSM withdrawal policy. Note, if you wish to withdraw because of
poor grades you must do so before the end of the eighth week of class. By this
time you will have ample graded material by which to judge your performance. If
you are unsure whether you will pass, or need help to do better, please come
and talk to me.
Grading:
Take home #1 (Due Oct 4)
Take home #2 (Due Nov 1)
Take home #3 (Due Dec 6)
Homework
Final (Wed Dec 18 at 10:15)
Total
100
100
100
200
150
650
Approximate letter grades: A > 87%, B > 75%, C > 63%, D > 53%
Lecture Schedule
Date
Sep 4
Sep 6
Sep 9
Sep 11
Sep 13
Sep 16
Topic
Introduction to thermodynamics, ideal gases
Equations of state, review of calculus for pchem
Energy and work
The first law, enthalpy, heat
Joule-Thomson expt, perfect gases
First law calculations
Sep 18
Sep 20
Sep 23
Sep 25
Sep 27
Sep 30
Oct 2
Oct 4
Oct 7
Oct 9
The second law, heat engines
Entropy
Entropy, reversibility and irreversibility
Meaning of entropy, material equilibrium
Gibbs and Helmholtz energies
Thermodynamic relations
Chemical potential
Take home exam 1 due
Standard enthalpy
Standard entropy, the third law
Oct
Oct
Oct
Oct
Oct
Oct
Oct
Thermodynamic tables
Ideal gas reaction equilibrium
Equilibrium calculations
Simultaneous equilibria, Q
The phase rule
Phase equilibrium, the Clapeyron equation
Phase transitions
11
14
16
18
21
23
25
Sections
1.1-1.5
1.6-1.9
2.1-2.2
2.3-2.6
2.7-2.8
2.9-2.12
3.1-3.2
3.3-3.4
3.5-3.6
3.7-3.8, 4.1-4.2
4.3-4.5
4.5-4.6
4.7-4.10
1-4
5.1-5.4
5.5-5.7
5.8-5.11
6.1-6.2
6.3-6.4
6.5-6.6
7.1
7.2-7.3
7.4-7.5
Oct 28
Oct 30
Nov 1
Nov 4
Nov 6
Nov 8
Nov 11
Nov 13
Nov 15
Nov 18
Real gases
Critical state, law of corresponding states
Take home exam 2 due
Partial molar quantities
Ideal solutions
Ideally dilute solutions, activity
Activity coefficients
Electrolyte solutions
Standard states of solutions, fugacity
Reaction equilibrium in nonideal solutions
Nov 20
Gibbs energy change, coupled reactions
Nov 22
Nov 25
Nov 27
Dec 2
Dec 4
Dec 6
Dec 9
Dec 11
Colligative properties
Liquid-vapor phase diagrams
Liquid-liquid and liquid-solid phase diagrams
3 component systems, the interphase region
Curved surfaces
Take home exam 3 due
Electrochemical systems
Thermodynamics of electrical cells
Dec 13
Dec 18
Applications of electrochemistry
Final Exam at 10:15
8.1-8.4
8.5-8.9
5-8
9.1-9.3
9.4-9.6
9.7-9.8, 10.1
10.2-10.5
10.6-10.8
10.9-10.11
11.1-11.4
11.5-11.10
12.1-12.4
12.5-12.6
12.7-12.8
12.9-12.12, 13.1
13.2-13.5
9-13
14.1-14.4
14.5-14.7
14.8-14.10
1-14
Homework Set 1: 1.4, 1.15, 1.21, 1.22, 1.31, 1.46, 1.54, 2.8, 2.16, 2.26 due Sep 13
Homework Set 2: 2.29, 2.33, 2.37, 2.40, 2.44, 2.46, 2.55, 3.5 due Sep 20