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Chapter 1
Introduction: Biology Today
PowerPoint® Lectures for
Campbell Essential Biology, Fifth Edition, and
Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology,
Fourth Edition
– Eric J. Simon, Jean L. Dickey, and Jane B. Reece
Lectures by Edward J. Zalisko
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Biology and Society:
Biology All Around Us
• We are living in a golden age of biology.
• Scientists are studying a myriad of questions that
are relevant to our lives.
– How can errors in cell growth lead to cancer?
– Genes that control cell growth undergo mutations.
– How do plants trap solar energy?
– Plants use special molecules that trap light energy.
– How do living creatures form ecological networks
and how do human activities disrupt them?
– Overpopulation is the most important threat to our planet.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Biology and Society:
Biology All Around Us
– How did the great diversity of life on Earth evolve
from the first microbes and how does such
evolution have an impact on human health?
–
Bacteria have evolved over many decades to resist antibiotics.
– How do mutations in genes lead to disease?
–
Mutations in genes leads to differences in proteins that regulate
biological function.
– How can DNA—the molecular basis of heredity—
be used in forensic investigations?
–
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Differences in DNA of humans is unique to each individual.
THE SCOPE OF LIFE
The Properties of Life
• Biology is the scientific study of life.
• The study of biology encompasses
– a wide scale of size from bacteria to blue whale
and
– a huge variety of life, both past and present.
– 99.9% of all species to ever exist are now extinct
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Living things (organisms) show specific qualities:
1. Order – exhibit complex but organized organization
Example: a simple pine cone showing unique
geometry of seeds.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
2. Regulation – organisms must regulate themselves
based on internal and external changes
Example: lizard adjusting temperature of its body
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
3. Growth and development – organisms grow and
develop in a pattern specific to the species
Example: newborn ostrich growing to an adult
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
4. Energy processing – organisms take in energy and
emit energy as heat
Example: puffin bird eats food for energy and
maintains body temperature which it releases as
heat
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
5. Response to the environment – organisms respond
to internal and external stimuli
Example: Venus flytrap capturing food
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
5. Reproduction – organisms make more of
themselves
Example: hippos make more of themselves
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
6. Evolution – species evolve over time based on
survival and reproductive success
Example: insect has evolved to look like a leaf
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Life at Its Many Levels
• Biologists explore life at levels ranging from the
biosphere to the subatomic particles.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.2-3
1 Biosphere
2 Ecosystems
3 Communities
4 Populations
5 Organisms
6 Organ Systems
and Organs
9 Organelles
7 Tissues
10 Molecules and Atoms
Atom
Nucleus
8 Cells
 Biosphere – Planet Earth
 Ecosystem – living and non-living components
with similar traits
 Community – more than one species living in a
defined geographical location
 Population – members of a single species living
in a particular area
 Organism – single member of a species
 Organ System – group of organs that achieve a
common function
 Organ – group of different tissues that performs a
specific function.
Tissue – group of cells that perform a certain
function.
 Cell – the fundamental unit of life on Earth
 Organelle – structure within a cell that performs a
specific function.
Nucleus
8 Cells
9 Organelles
 Molecule – consists of two or more elements
 Atom – fundamental unit of matter in the universe
Atom
10
Molecules and Atoms
Ecosystems
• Each organism interacts continuously with its
environment.
– Organisms interact continuously with the living and
nonliving factors in the environment.
– All the living organisms in a specific area, along
with all of the nonliving factors with which they
interact, form an ecosystem.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Ecosystems
• The dynamics of any ecosystem depend on two
main processes:
– recycling of chemical nutrients and
– flow of energy.
• Within ecosystems
– molecules are recycled but
– energy flows in and out of it.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.3
Outflow
of heat
energy
ECOSYSTEM
Inflow
of light
energy
Consumers
(animals)
Chemical
energy
(food)
Producers
(plants and other
photosynthetic
organisms)
Cycling
of
nutrients
Decomposers
(in soil)
Cells and Their DNA
• The cell is the level at which the properties of life
emerge.
• Cells are the lowest level of structure that can
perform all activities required for life.
• All organisms are composed of cells.
• Cells are the subunits that make up multicellular
organisms such as humans and trees.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Cells and Their DNA
• All cells share many characteristics.
– All cells are enclosed by a membrane that
regulates the passage of materials between the
cell and its surroundings.
– Every cell uses DNA as its genetic information.
– DNA is the instruction for a cell on how to make
proteins.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Cells and Their DNA
• We can distinguish two major types of cells:
1. The prokaryotic cell
– is simpler and smaller and
– is represented by simple bacteria
– does not have a nucleus that stores DNA
2. The eukaryotic cell is
– subdivided by internal membranes into different
functional compartments called organelles and
– found in plants, animals, protists and fungi
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.4
Prokaryotic cell (bacterium)
Eukaryotic cell
• Smaller
• Simpler structure
• DNA concentrated in
• Larger
• More complex
Organelles
nucleoid region, which is
not enclosed by membrane
• Lacks most organelles
structure
• Nucleus enclosed
by membrane
• Contains many
types of organelles
Nucleoid
region
Colorized TEM
Nucleus
Cells and Their DNA
• All cells use DNA as the chemical material of
genes, the units of inheritance that transmit
information from parents to offspring.
• A gene is a stretch of the DNA molecules that
codes for the structure of a particular protein.
• The chemical language of DNA
– is common to all organisms and
– consists of just four molecular building blocks with
names that are abbreviated as A, G, C, T.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.5
The four
chemical
building
blocks of
DNA
A DNA molecule
Cells and Their DNA
• Genetic engineering has transformed the
pharmaceutical industry and extended millions of
lives.
• Scientists have taken advantage of the fact that
DNA is common to all cells.
• They have transplanted DNA from fluorescent
jellyfish into a mouse.
• They have transplanted human genes into yeast
cells to produce human proteins to treat disease.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.6
Cells and Their DNA
• The entire “book” of genetic instructions that an
organism inherits is called its genome.
• The nucleus of each human cell packs a genome
that is about 3.2 billion chemical letters long.
• The letters are abbreviated “ A T G and C”
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Life in Its Diverse Forms
• Diversity is a hallmark of life.
– The diversity of known life includes about 1.8
million species that biologists have identified and
named.
– Estimates of the total number of species range
from 10 million to over 100 million.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.7
Grouping Species: The Basic Concept
• Biodiversity can be beautiful but overwhelming.
• Categorizing life into groups helps us deal with this
complexity.
• Taxonomy is the branch of biology that names
and classifies species.
– It formalizes the hierarchical ordering of organisms
into broader and broader groups.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NRVJyUZoQo
w
The Three Domains of Life
• The three domains of life are
– Bacteria,
– Archaea, and
– Eukarya.
• Bacteria and Archaea have prokaryotic cells.
• Eukarya have eukaryotic cells.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Three Domains of Life
• Eukarya include
– Kingdom Plantae,
– Kingdom Fungi,
– Kingdom Animalia, and
– Protists (multiple kingdoms).
• Most plants, fungi, and animals are multicellular.
• Protists are generally single-celled.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Three Domains of Life
• These three multicellular kingdoms are
distinguished by how they obtain food.
– Plants produce their own sugars and other foods
by photosynthesis.
– Fungi are mostly decomposers, digesting dead
organisms.
– Animals obtain food by ingesting (eating) and
digesting other organisms.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
DOMAIN
ARCHAEA
DOMAIN
BACTERIA
Figure 1.8a
Figure 1.8b
DOMAIN EUKARYA
Kingdom Plantae
Kingdom Fungi
Kingdom Animalia
Protists (multiple kingdoms)
Unity in the Diversity of Life
• Underlying the diversity of life is a striking unity,
especially at the lower levels of biological
organization.
– For example, all life uses the genetic language
of DNA.
• Biological evolution accounts for this combination
of unity and diversity.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
EVOLUTION:
BIOLOGY’S UNIFYING THEME
• The history of life is a saga of a constantly
changing Earth billions of years old.
– Fossils document this history.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
EVOLUTION:
BIOLOGY’S UNIFYING THEME
• Life evolves.
– Each species is one twig of a branching tree of
life extending back in time through ancestral
species more and more remote.
– Species that are very similar, such as the brown
bear and polar bear, share a more recent
common ancestor.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.10
Giant panda
Spectacled bear
Ancestral
bear
Sloth bear
Sun bear
Common ancestor
of all modern bears
American black bear
Asiatic black bear
Common ancestor of
polar bear and brown bear
Polar bear
Brown bear
30
25
20
15
10
Millions of years ago
5
The Darwinian View of Life
• The evolutionary view of life came into focus in
1859 when Charles Darwin published On the
Origin of Species by Means of Natural
Selection.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Darwinian View of Life
• Darwin’s book developed two main points:
1. Species living today descended from a succession
of ancestral species in what Darwin called “descent
with modification,” capturing the duality of life’s
– unity (descent) and
– diversity (modification).
2. Natural selection is the mechanism for descent
with modification.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Natural Selection
• Darwin was struck by the diversity of animals on
the Galápagos Islands.
• He thought that adaptation to the environment and
the origin of new species were closely related
processes.
– As populations separated by a geographic barrier
adapted to local environments, they became
separate species.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.11a
Darwin’s Inescapable Conclusion
• Darwin synthesized the theory of natural selection
from two observations that were neither profound
nor original.
– Others had the pieces of the puzzle, but Darwin
could see how they fit together.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Darwin’s Inescapable Conclusion
• Observation 1: Overproduction and competition
• Observation 2: Individual variation
• Conclusion: Unequal reproductive success
– It is this unequal reproductive success that Darwin
called natural selection.
– The product of natural selection is adaptation.
• Natural selection is the mechanism of evolution.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.12
1 Population with varied inherited traits
2 Elimination of individuals with certain traits
3 Reproduction of survivors
4 Increasing frequency of traits that enhance
survival and reproductive success
Observing Artificial Selection
• Artificial selection is the selective breeding of
domesticated plants and animals by humans.
• In artificial selection, humans do the selecting
instead of the environment.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.13a
(a) Vegetables descended
from wild mustard
Wild mustard
Cabbage
from
end buds
Brussels
sprouts from
side buds
Kohlrabi
from stems
Kale from
leaves
Broccoli from
flowers
and stems
Cauliflower
from flower
clusters
Figure 1.13b
(b) Domesticated dogs
descended from wolves
Gray wolves
Domesticated dogs
Observing Natural Selection
• There are many examples of natural selection in
action.
– In Galápagos finches, beak size becomes better
suited to the size and shape of available seeds.
– Antibiotic-resistance in bacteria evolves in
response to the overuse of antibiotics.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Observing Natural Selection
• Darwin’s publication of The Origin of Species
fueled an explosion in biological research.
– Evolution is one of biology’s best demonstrated,
most comprehensive, and longest-lasting theories.
– Evolution is the unifying theme of biology.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GhHOjC4oxh8
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0SCjhI86grU
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lIEoO5KdPvg
THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE
• The word science is derived from a Latin verb
meaning “to know.”
– Science is a way of knowing, based on inquiry.
– Science developed from our curiosity about
ourselves and the world around us.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE
• There are two main scientific approaches:
– Discovery science is mostly about describing
nature.
– Hypothesis-driven science is mostly about
explaining nature.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Discovery Science
• Science seeks natural causes for natural
phenomena.
– This limits the scope of science to the study of
structures and processes that we can observe
and measure directly or indirectly.
• The dependence on observations that people can
confirm demystifies nature and distinguishes
science from belief in the supernatural.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Discovery Science
• Verifiable observations and measurements are the
data of discovery science.
– In biology, discovery science enables us to
describe life at its many levels, from ecosystems
down to cells and molecules.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Discovery Science
• Jane Goodall studied the behavior and interaction
among chimpanzees in the jungle
• She made observations that helped explain the
social structure among the groups.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.14a
Discovery Science
• She kept a detailed journal that documented her
observations.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.14b
Discovery Science
• Discovery science
– can stimulate us to ask questions and seek
explanations and
– uses a process of inquiry called the scientific
method, consisting of a series of steps that provide
a loose guideline for scientific investigations.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Hypothesis-Driven Science
• Most modern scientific investigations can be
described as hypothesis-driven science.
– A hypothesis is a tentative answer to a question—
an explanation on trial. It is a guess as to the
answer to a problem.
– Although we don’t think of it in those terms, we use
hypotheses in solving everyday problems, like
figuring out why a TV remote fails.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Hypothesis-Driven Science
• Once a hypothesis is formed, an investigator can
use logic to test it.
– A hypothesis is tested by performing an
experiment to see whether results are as
predicted.
– This deductive reasoning takes the form of
“If…then” logic.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.15-1
Observation
The remote
doesn’t
work.
Question
What’s
wrong?
Hypothesis
The
batteries
are dead.
Prediction
With new
batteries, it
will work.
Figure 1.15-2
Observation
The remote
doesn’t
work.
Question
What’s
wrong?
Hypothesis
The
batteries
are dead.
Prediction
With new
batteries, it
will work.
Experiment
Replace
batteries.
Experiment
supports
hypothesis;
make more
predictions
and test.
Figure 1.15-3
Observation
The remote
doesn’t
work.
Question
What’s
wrong?
Revise.
Experiment
does not
support
hypothesis.
Hypothesis
The
batteries
are dead.
Prediction
With new
batteries, it
will work.
Experiment
Replace
batteries.
Experiment
supports
hypothesis;
make more
predictions
and test.
The Process of Science:
Are Trans Fats Bad for You?
• One way to better understand how the process of
science can be applied to real-world problems is to
examine a case study, an in-depth examination of
an actual investigation.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Process of Science:
Are Trans Fats Bad for You?
• Dietary fat comes in different forms.
• Trans fats are a non-natural form produced through
manufacturing processes called hydrogenation.
• Trans fats
– add texture,
– increase shelf life, and
– are inexpensive to prepare.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Process of Science:
Are Trans Fats Bad for You?
• A study of 120,000 female nurses found that a diet
with high levels of trans fats nearly doubled the risk
of heart disease.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Process of Science:
Are Trans Fats Bad for You?
• A hypothesis-driven study published in 2004
– started with the observation that human body fat
retains traces of consumed dietary fat,
– asked the question, Would the adipose tissue of
heart attack patients be different from a similar
group of healthy patients?, and
– formed the hypothesis that healthy patients’ body
fat would contain less trans fats than the body fat
in heart attack victims.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Process of Science:
Are Trans Fats Bad for You?
• The researchers set up an experiment to
determine the amounts of fat in the adipose tissue
of 79 patients who had experienced a heart attack.
• They compared these patients to the data for 167
patients who had not experienced a heart attack.
• This is an example of a controlled experiment, in
which the control and experimental groups differ
only in one variable—the occurrence of a heart
attack.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Process of Science:
Are Trans Fats Bad for You?
• The results showed significantly higher levels of
trans fats in the bodies of the heart attack patients.
• You would do well to read nutrition labels and
avoid trans fats as much as possible in your own
diet.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Trans fats in adipose tissue
(g trans fat per 100 g total fat)
Figure 1.16
2.0
1.77
1.48
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
Heart attack
patients
Control
group
Theories in Science
• What is a scientific theory, and how is it different
from a hypothesis?
– A scientific theory is much broader in scope than a
hypothesis.
– Theories only become widely accepted in science if
they are supported by an accumulation of extensive
and varied evidence.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Theories in Science
• Scientific theories are not the only way of “knowing
nature.”
• Science, religion, and art are very different ways of
trying to make sense of nature.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Culture of Science
• Scientists build on what has been learned from
earlier research.
– They pay close attention to contemporary
scientists working on the same problem.
• Cooperation and competition characterize the
scientific culture.
– Scientists check the conclusions of others by
attempting to repeat experiments.
– Scientists are generally skeptics.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Culture of Science
• Science has two key features that distinguish it
from other forms of inquiry. Science
– depends on observations and measurements
that others can verify and
– requires that ideas (hypotheses) are testable by
experiments that others can repeat.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Science, Technology, and Society
• Science and technology are interdependent.
– New technologies advance science.
– Scientific discoveries lead to new technologies.
– For example, the discovery of the structure of
DNA about 60 years ago led to a variety of DNA
technologies.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Science, Technology, and Society
– Technology has improved our standard of living
in many ways, but it is a double-edged sword.
– Technology that keeps people healthier has
enabled the human population to double to
7.2 billion in just the past 40 years.
– The environmental consequences of this
population growth may be devastating.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Evolution Connection:
Evolution in Our Everyday Lives
• Antibiotics are drugs that help cure bacterial
infections.
• When an antibiotic is taken, most bacteria are
typically killed.
• Those bacteria most naturally resistant to the drug
can still survive.
• Those few resistant bacteria can soon multiply and
become the norm and not the exception.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Evolution Connection:
Evolution in Our Everyday Lives
• The evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a
huge problem in public health.
• Antibiotics are being used more selectively.
• Many farmers are reducing the use of antibiotics in
animal feed.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Evolution Connection:
Evolution in Our Everyday Lives
• It is important to note that the adaptation of
bacteria to an environment containing an antibiotic
does not mean that the drug created the antibiotic
resistance.
• Instead, the environment screened the heritable
variations that already existed among the existing
bacteria.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.