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Endocrine and Reproductive Systems
Practice Exam 4
Supplemental Instruction
Iowa State University
Chelsea P
AnS 214
Dr. Adur
1.The posterior pituitary stores and releases two hypothalamic hormones and they are?
a. Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
b. Oxytocin and growth hormone (GH)
c. GH and ADH
d. GH and prolactin (PRL)
2. The ability for a hormone to illicit a response on a cell requires the right:
a. Plasma membrane
b. Nucleus
c. Receptor
d. Cytoplasm
3. Thyroid hormone (TH) includes thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which is more
a. T3
b. T4
4. The metabolic rate of most body tissues is controlled directly by:
a. TH
b. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
c. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
d. ADH
5. _________________ decreases blood calcium levels and _________________ increases
blood calcium levels.
a. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin
b.Calcitonin, PTH
c. GH, PRL
6. The pancreas produces what two hormone that help regulate blood glucose levels?
a. Insulin and GH
b. GH and PRL
c. Insulin and glucagon
d. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
7. The metabolic rate of most body tissues is controlled directly by:
a. TH
b. FSH
c. TSH
d. ADH
8.__________ is a deficiency of blood calcium, and ___________ is a excess of blood calcium.
a. Hypercalcemia, Hypocalcemia
b. Hypercalcemia, Hypercalcemia
c. Hypocalcemia, Hypercalcemia
d. Hypocalcemia, Hypocalcemia
9.The secretion of parathyroid hormone is a good example of:
a. Hormonal stimuli
b. Humoral stimuli
c. Hypothalamic stimuli
d. Neural stimuli
10.The stimulus for producing insulin is:
a. High blood glucose concentration.
b. Low blood glucose concentration.
c. Low glycogen concentration.
d. Low blood amino acid concentration.
11.The transcription of new messenger RNA (mRNA) is a function of:
a. Amino acid-based hormones.
b. Catecholamines.
c. Steroid hormones.
d. Pituitary gland hormones.
12. Which of the following elements is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormone?
a. Copper
b. Sulfur
c. Iron
d. Iodine
13. Which of the following is the property in which a hormone CANNOT exhibit its full effect
without another hormone?
a. Assertiveness
b. Synergism
c. Permissiveness
d. Antagonism
14. Water-soluble hormones exhibit the shortest:
a. Activation time.
b. Molecule.
c. Chain of amino acids
d. Half-life.
15.Endocrine glands:
a. Have ducts.
b. Have no ducts
c. Have extracellular effects
d. Aid in food digestion
16. The ___________ catches the oocyte.
a. Infundibulum
b. Cervix
c. Vagina
d. Rectum
17. Choose the false statement about oogenesis.
a. Primary oocytes are stalled in prophase I until puberty.
b. In humans, the secondary oocyte must complete meiosis II before it can be fertilized.
c. In oogenesis, three polar bodies and one functional gamete are produced.
d. Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries.
18. Which of the following is mismatched?
a. Luteal phase: characterized by decreased progesterone levels
b. Ovulation: secondary oocyte is released
c. Ovarian cycle: monthly series of events associated with maturation of an egg
d. Follicular phase: maturation of a primordial follicle to form a secondary oocyte
19.The functional layer of the endometrium is shed in response to:
a. Decreased estrogen levels.
b. Increased estrogen levels.
c. Decreased progesterone levels.
d. Increased progesterone levels.
20. The basic difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is that:
a. The mature ovum is haploid and the sperm is 2n.
b. Spermatogenesis involves mitosis and meiosis, but oogenesis involves meiosis only.
c. Two polar bodies are produced in spermatogenesis.
d. One mature ovum is produced in oogenesis, and four mature sperm are produced in
21.The surge in LH that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers:
a. Uterine-lining secretion.
b. Ovulation
c. Menstruation
d. Activation of primordial follicles.
22. __________ cells, located between seminiferous tubules, produce testosterone.
a. Interstitial
b. Sustenacular
c. Sertoli
d. Follicle
23. In which uterine phase does the functional layer of the endometrium start to rebuild?
a. Secretory
b. Proliferative
c. Preovulatory
d. Ovulation
24. Which is the most correct sequence of sperm flow in the male duct system?
a. Testes, ductus deferens, urethra, seminal vesicle
b. Seminiferous tubules, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, ampulla, urethra
c. Seminiferous tubules, prostatic urethra, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, ampulla
d. Seminiferous tubules, epididymis, vas deferens, ampulla, ejaculatory duct, urethra
25. Sperm are produced in the:
a. Spermatic cord
b. Seminal vesicles
c. Seminiferous tubules
d. Epididymis
26. Ovulation in a typical, or “average,” cycle usually occurs on day:
a. 28
b. 14
c. 7
d. 1
27. What hormone is responsible for the secondary sex characteristics found in women?
a. Estrogen
b. FSH
c. LH
d. Progesterone
28. Meiosis in the female is completed:
a. Before birth
b. After birth
c. At ovulation
d. After fertilization
29. Sperm complete the maturation process and are stored in the:
a. Seminiferous tubules
b. Epididymis
c. Ductus deferens
d. Rete testis
30. Which phase of the uterine cycle ends with a rise in estrogen and ovulation?
a. Proliferative phase
b. Menstruation
c. Secretory phase
d. Premenstrual phase
31. The site of fertilization:
a. Uterus
b. Cervix
c. Ampullary-isthmus junction
d. Vagina
32. A way that the scrotum is kept cool:
a. Cremaster muscle
b. Tunica Dartos muscle
c. Pampiniform plexus
d. All of the above
33. What is the hormone that is needed for puberty to be initiated?
a. Estrogen
b. GnRH
c. Testosterone
d. E2
34. What do the pinealocytes (located in the pineal gland) secrete in response to longer nights?
a. LH
b. FSH
c. Melatonin
d. GnRH
35. Anestrus is a term used describe a time when there is no cyclicity (important to remember).
When is there a time when there is anestrus?
a. Pregnancy
b. Lactation
c. Presence of offspring
d. All of the above
36. What hormone is high when an animal is cycling?
a. LH
b. FSH
c. Estrogen
d. Testosterone
37. The term used to describe standing heat at day zero in the estrous cycle is called estrus? Is the
underlined word spelled correctly?
a. Yes
b. No
38. The recurring reproductive cycle in many female mammals that starts with one estrus (heat)
to the next estrus (heat) and is 21 days long in the cow is called the estrous cycle. Is the
underlined word spelled correctly?
a. Yes
b. No
Endocrine System
1. Endocrine glands are ductless. Their responses tend to act much slower than those of the
nervous system. The endocrine system acts through chemical messengers in the blood or
lymph called hormones. Their effects can take place in the cell where they are produced
called a(n) autocrine effect or they can have effects on cells other than the one that
secreted them called a(n) paracrine effect. There are two classes of hormones steroid and
amino acid derived. Steroid hormones and TH circulate in the blood bound to plasma
proteins while all other hormones circulate freely. Concentration in the blood is affected
by the rate of release and speed of degradation or inactivation. The amount of time it
takes for half a hormone to be removed from the blood is called the half-life. Hormones
can be released in response to various stimuli. Changing levels of ions and nutrients in
the blood classify one type of stimuli called humoral stimuli. Ca+2 is regulated in this
way. If Ca+2 levels get too high calcitonin deposit calcium into the bone matrix.
However, if Ca+2 levels are too low PTH degrade the bone matrix to release calcium into
the blood. An extremely low level of blood calcium in a lactating cow can cause
hypocalcemia (milk fever). A second type of stimuli called neural stimuli is characterized
by nerve fibers stimulating hormone release. When one hormone triggers the release of
another hormone this is called a hormonal stimulus. The posterior pituitary stores the two
hypothalamic hormones ADH and oxytocin. The anterior pituitary secretes the six
hormones FSH, LH, GH, PRL, ACTH, and TSH. All of these are classified as amino acid
hormones. The hormone that can be regulated indirectly by IGFs is also regulated by
_______ and _______. LH stimulates the production of gonadal hormones, while FSH
stimulates gamete production. Both of these hormones are regulated by GnRH. Prolactin
is regulated by PIH also called prolactin-inhibiting hormone. Oxytocin stimulates uterine
contractions during childbirth. TSH regulates the normal function of the thyroid gland.
This gland requires iodine or else it will swell causing a goiter. It produces two hormones
T3 which is more active than T4. In the pancreas alpha cells secrete glucagon and beta
cells secrete insulin. Glucagon can cause the breakdown of glycogen to glucose called
glycogenolysis. It can also cause the synthesis of glucose called gluconeogenesis.
Hypoactivity or hypersecreteion of insulin can cause diabetes mellitus. Three symptoms
of diabetes are polyuria, polyphagia, and polydipsia. When one hormone cannot exert its
effects without another hormone present that is called permissiveness. Synergism is when
more than one hormone produces the same effect on a target cell. Finally, when one
hormone inhibits another, it is called an antagonist. The effectiveness of a hormone
depends on concentration of hormone, number of receptors, and affinity between
hormone and receptor.
Reproductive System Male
1. In the male reproductive system the testes produce sperm. They are contained inside a sac
of skin called the scrotum. It can maintain a temperature lower than core body
temperature through two mechanisms the dartos tunica and cremaster muscle. Another
mechanism for temperature regulation is a countercurrent heat exchanger called the
pampiniform plexus. The three accessory sex glands in the male are the seminal vesicles,
prostate gland, and bulbourethral gland. The combination of sperm and accessory sex
gland fluid is semen. It contains seminal fluid from the seminal vesicles to help sperm
reach the egg. Sertoli cells form the blood-testis-barrier, produce ABP, Inhibin, and MIS,
and absorb cast off from developing spermatozoa. Leydig cells produce androgens
stimulated by the effect of the hormone LH. Due to androgen-binding protein from the
sustenacular (sertoli) cells, there is an increase in ABP in the testes. This leads to an
increase in testosterone.
Reproductive System Female
2. In the female reproductive system an oocyte begins with oogenesis in the ovary. After
maturing into a mature follicle, the oocyte will be ovulated. From here it moves into the
portion of the uterine tube called the infundibulum. The oocyte then moves into the
ampulla where fertilization can occur and finally into the isthmus. From the uterine tube
it moves into the uterus. If fertilization has occurred it will implant into the endothelium
and continue developing. There are two distinct phases seen in the ovary. The phase
before ovulation is the follicular phase which includes the growth of the follicles. The
second phase is the luteal phase and includes activity of the CL. At the same time there
are three distinct phases in the uterus. The first, which would occur if a female were not
pregnant, is the menstral phase. During this phase the endometrium is shed or resorbed.
The next phase is the proliferative phase in which estrogen initiates the development of a
new functional layer and increases receptors of progesterone in the endometrium. The
last phase is the secretory phase. During this phase the endometrium continues to develop
in preparation for an embryo. Maternal recognition of pregnancy is caused by LH
secreted from the blastocyte. During development in utero mullerian ducts form into the
female reproductive tract due to a lack of MIS. If androgens are present the wolfferian
ducts form into the male reproductive tract.
Estrous Cycle
3. The first stage of the estrous cycle is estrus or standing heat. During this stage estrogen
levels are high which cause an LH surge. This leads to ovulation and formation of a CL.
The next stage is metestrus. Estrogen levels start to decline, while progesterone levels are
rising. If fertilization has occurred the embryo will move towards the uterus. During
diestrus progesterone levels are very high. If pregnant the corpus luteum will remain and
produce progesterone. If not pregnant it will regress due to the action of corpus albicans.
Finally, the female goes into proestrus and progesterone levels decrease. If the female
stops cycling she is in anestrus.
I advise you to say your dream is possible and then overcome all inconveniences, ignore all the
hassles and take a running leap through the hoop, even if it is in flames.
~Les Brown