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Transcript
Chapter 5 & 6- Populations
Chapter 5 Outline
5–1 How Populations Grow
A. Characteristics of Populations
B.
Population Growth
C. Exponential Growth
D. Logistic Growth
5–2 Limits to Growth
A. Limiting Factors
B.
Density-Dependent Factors
1. Competition
2. Predation
3. Parasitism and Disease
C. Density-Independent Factors
5–3 Human Population Growth
A. Historical Overview
B.
Patterns of Population Growth
1. The Demographic Transition
2. Age Structure
C. Future Population Growth
What Affects Population Size?
A
population is a group of organisms belonging to a
single species that lives in a given area.
Characteristics of a Population
1- Geographical
Distribution
2- Density
3- Growth Rate
1- Geographical
Distribution
-area inhabited by a
population
-could be as small as a few
cubic centimeters like a
bacteria or as large as
millions of kilometers like
killer whales
2- Population Density

the number of individuals per unit

How organisms are dispersed can be important

Three patterns of dispersal are random, clumped, and
uniform
3- Growth Rate
- 3 factors that affect a populations size
- number of births
- number of deaths
- number of individuals entering and leaving a
population
-A population will increase or decrease in size depending on
the number added or removed from it
-A population will grow if: Birth Rate > Death Rate
-A population will stay the same if: Birth Rate = Death
Rate
-A population will decline if: Birth Rate < Death Rate
3 – Growth Rate

Individuals entering and leaving the
population will also increase or decrease
a population’s size
Immigration- movement of individuals
into an area (increase population)
 Emigration- movement of individuals
out of an area (decrease population)

Peaks of Otter Salamander
Exponential Growth


If a population has abundant space and food, protection from
predators and disease then the organisms in the population will
multiply and the population will increase
Under ideal conditions with plenty of nutrients, heat, moisture, &
light a bacteria can reproduce by splitting in half within 20
minutes producing 2 bacteria
In 20 minutes the population is 2
In 40 minutes the population is 4
In 1 hour: the population is 8
In 2 hours: 64
In 3 hours: 512
In one day: 4,720,000,000,000,000,000,000
Population size
1 million
500,000
One year
•The pattern of growth is a J-shaped curve and the population is
undergoing exponential growth
•Exponential growth occurs when the individuals in a population
reproduce at a constant rate
•If there are unlimited resources and no predators, exponential
growth will continue
Logistic Growth




Exponential growth doesn’t continue in natural populations
for very long
If a new species of organism is introduced into a new
environment, at first the population grows slowly, then
exponentially, eventually the population growth slows down
As resources become less available, the growth of a
population slows or stops forming an S-shaped curvelogistic growth
Logistic Growth occurs when a
population’s growth slows or
stops following a period of
exponential growth
Birth rate decreases and death
rate increases
Carrying Capacity


When growth levels off
and the population is
not growing
Carrying capacity- the
largest number of
individuals that an
environment can
support
When a population overshoots the carrying capacity, then limiting
factors may come into effect


A balance between environmental factors must exist for a
population to survive
For example:
 Producers & consumers
 Water use & rainfall
Population Growth
3
2
1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
4
5
Initial growth- birth (natality) is high
Exponential growth
Carrying capacity- steady state
Decline- increase in death rate
Extinction
Population
Growth
can be
Logistic
growth
Exponential
growth
characterized by
No limits on
growth
Unlimited
resources
represented by
Constant
growth rate
J-shaped
curve
characterized by
Limits on
growth
which cause a
Falling
growth rate
represented by
S-shaped
curve
5–2 Limits to Growth
A. Limiting Factors
B. Density-Dependent Factors
1. Competition
2. Predation
3. Parasitism and Disease
C. Density-Independent Factors
What can limit growth?



Limiting Factors
Any factor that causes
population growth to
decrease
Limiting factors, such as
availability of food,
disease, predators, or
lack of space, will cause
population growth to
slow
Under these pressures,
the population may
stabilize in an S-shaped
growth curve
Population
Carrying
capacity
0
J curve
S curve
Time
FOOD
PREDATORS
SPACE
Exponential
growth
DISEASE
Characteristics of Population Growth
Bacteria Growth
Carrying Capacity
Decline
Prolonged Decline
Exponential
Initial
Density-Dependent Limiting Factors

A limiting factor that depends on population size is a
Density-dependent limiting factor

Density-dependent factors include disease, competition,
predators, parasites, and food.

Disease, for example, can spread more quickly in a
population with members that live close together.

Density dependent factors create an S-shaped curve
Organism Interactions Limit Population Size

Population sizes are limited not only by abiotic factors,
but also are controlled by various interactions among
organisms that share a community.
Competition within a population

Competition is a density-dependent factor

When only a few individuals compete for resources, no
problem arises

When a population increases to the point at which
demand for resources exceeds the supply, the population
size decreases

Competition can also occur between members of
different species- this creates evolutionary change

The two species competing are under stress to change in
way that decrease competition- eventually evolving to
occupy separate niches
Predation affects population size

Predation is a density-dependent factor

When a predator consumes prey on a large enough
scale, it can have a drastic effect on the size of the
prey population

Populations of predators
and their prey are known
to experience cycles or
changes in their numbers
over periods of time
Predation affects population size
The data in this graph reflect the number of hare
and lynx pelts sold to the Hudson’s Bay Company
in northern Canada from 1845 through 1935.
Lynx and Hare Pelts Sold to the Hudson’s Bay Company
Number of organisms in thousands)

Lynx
Hare
Times (in years)
Moose
Wolves
• The periodic increase in the moose population is quickly
followed by a rise in the number of wolves.
• This increase in the number of wolves increases the number
of moose captured by their predator and the moose
population drops.
• The wolf population will then decrease after the moose
numbers drop because the wolves are less able to find food.
• The predator prey cycle can be repeated indefinitely.
Parasitism and Disease




Parasites can also limit a population’s
size-density-dependent
As the # of individuals , parasites
which then causes the # of individuals to
Parasites are similar to a predator in
that they take nourishment at the
expense of their host
As a population increases in size, disease
is more common because individuals are
in closer contact with one another
Density-independent limiting factors
and population growth

Density-independent
factors can affect all
populations,
regardless of their
size

Most densityindependent factors
are abiotic factors,
such as temperature,
storms, floods,
drought, and major
habitat disruption
Density-Independent Factors

Density-independent
factors create a boom-and
bust curve (exponential
growth followed by a
sudden collapse)

Examples:
 Weather- a drought
kills grass
 Human activity:
deforestation- destroys
habitat
 Seasons: a severe
winter regulates insect
population
Boom-and-Bust Curve
Population
Density
Time
Limitations on Population Growth
Reproduction Patterns

In nature, animal and plant populations change in
size.

Biologists study the factor that determines
population growth—an organism’s reproductive
pattern, also called its life-history pattern

A variety of population growth patterns are
possible in nature- R strategists and K-strategists
Rapid life-history patterns- R Strategists

rapid life-history
patterns are common
among organisms from
changeable or
unpredictable
environments

rapid life-history
organisms have a small
body size, mature
rapidly, reproduce
early, and have a short
life span
Slow life-history patterns – K-strategists

large species that live in more stable environments
usually have slow life-history patterns.

reproduce and mature slowly, and are long-lived. They
maintain population sizes at or near carrying capacity






5–3 Human Population Growth
A. Historical Overview
B. Patterns of Population Growth
1. The Demographic Transition
2. Age Structure
C. Future Population Growth
Demography

Demography, the study of human population size,
density and distribution, movement, and its birth
and death rates

Demography examines the characteristics of
human populations and attempts to explain how
those populations will change over time

Demographic transition- a change in a population
from high birth and death rates to low birth and
death rates; Examples- United States and Japan
Human Population Growth
Industrial
Revolution
IndustrialBegins
Agriculture
begins
Agriculture
begins
Revolution
begins
Bubonic
Plowing
and
Plowing
irrigation
and
plague
Bubonic
plague
irrigation
Until about 500 years ago, the population grew slowly. Agriculture
and industry made life easier and safer.
Human Population




We are growing exponentially
Due to technological advances: medicines, a dependable
food supply, and sanitation
The death rate is decreasing and the life expectancy is
increasing
The human population will eventually reach its carrying
capacity
Age Structure
Population Distribution Per Age Range for Several Countries
Stable growth
Rapid growth
Male
Slow growth
Reproductive years
Age
Female
Population (percent of total for each country)



Population growth depends on how many people of different ages make up a
given population
Demographers can predict future growth using age-structure diagrams
Age-structure diagrams graph the number of people in each age group
Age Structure
U.S. Population
Rwandan Population
Ch.6-2: Human Impact on the Environment

Air



Greenhouse effect
 Trapping of heat by gases in the Earth’s atmosphere (carbon dioxide)
 This may lead to global warming- increase in the Earth’s temperature
from the rapid buildup of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases
Acid Rain
 Burning of fossil fuels release nitrogen and sulfur into the atmosphere
which combined with water form nitric and sulfuric acid
 Acid Rain kills plants
Smog
 Mix of chemicals in the air from automobile exhaust
 Affects the respiratory system especially those with asthma
The Formation of Acid Rain
Section 6-2
Emissions to Atmosphere
Nitrogen oxides
Sulfur dioxide
Chemical Transformation
Nitric acid
Sulfuric acid
Dry Fallout
particulates, gases
Industry
Transportation
Ore smelting
Power generation
Condensation
Precipitation
Acid rain, fog,
snow, and mist
Human Impact of the Environment

Water


Excessive nutrients can cause an increase in algae
growth and depletion of oxygen for other organisms
Over harvesting of fish has reduced the number of
fish
Human Impact of the Environment

Land
 Erosion
 The wearing away of surface soil by water and
wind
 Desertification
 The combination of farming, overgrazing, and
drought in dry climates which turn productive
areas into deserts
 Deforestation
 The loss of forests which leading to severe erosion
and changes in soil properties

Deforestation
erosion
water pollution and desertification
Consequences

If humans continue to alter the environment, they will
have to deal with the results
 Examples: fossil fuels combustion, habitat
destruction, deforestation, ozone layer destruction,
global warming

Human Overpopulation results in:
 Worldwide malnutrition
 Increased disease
 Increased pollution
Humans need to learn to be a part of nature not apart from
nature!
Ch. 6-3: Biological Diversity



Ecosystem diversity- variety of
habitats, communities, and
ecological processes in the living
world
Species diversity- the number of
different species
Genetic diversity- sum total of all
the different forms of genetic
information carried by all organisms
living on Earth today

Biodiversity increases as you move
toward the equator.

Areas around the world differ in
biodiversity

Biodiversity can bring stability to an
ecosystem.
Biodiversity is one of the world’s greatest resources
Variations within a species also helps
protect against disease or parasite





Genetically different individuals within a
species have a better chance of resisting
disease
Example: world cheetah population reduced
by a single virus
Tree plantation has same type of trees (single
species) vulnerable to disease, etc..- spread
easily
Diversity among individuals in a population is
important to resistance of population as a
whole (genetically different)
Biological diversity causes ecological stability
Adaptations- changes in response to factors in the
environment (physical and behavioral changes)
Slow process that takes place over many generations
Organisms can be specialized to occupy a specific niche
Advantages
 The more specialized an organism’s method of
obtaining food and life requirements are (NICHE),
the less competition they will have with other
species (they have a better chance of surviving)
 Example: anteater with long snout can reach into ant
hills
Disadvantages
 If there are changes in the environment, organisms
may not be able to adapt fast enough in response
 Example: Koala bears eat only Eucalyptus trees




Species Diversity
Insects
54.4%
Protists
4.2%
Other Animals
19.7%
Plants
18%
Fungi Bacteria
0.3%
3.4%
Loss of Biodiversity



Extinction is the
disappearance of a species
when the last of its
members dies
Extinction is a natural
process and Earth has
experienced several mass
extinctions during its
history
A species is considered to be an endangered
species when its numbers become so low that
extinction is possible
Threats to Biodiversity




Complex interactions among species make each
ecosystem unique
Changes to habitats can therefore threaten organisms
with extinction
Human activity can reduce biodiversity by altering
habitats, hunting species to extinction, introducing
toxic substances into food webs, and introducing
invasive species
Habitat loss-One of the biggest reasons for decline in
biodiversity
Threats to Biodiversity: Habitat fragmentation
Habitat fragmentation
is the separation of
wilderness areas
from other
wilderness areas
Habitat
fragmentation
creates “islands”
of habitat that are
isolated from each
other
Threats to Biodiversity:
Demand for wildlife products




Hunting has caused many animals to go
extinct
For example: passenger pigeon and Stellar
sea cow
Humans hunt for food, fur, hides, and body
parts thought to have medicinal properties
In the United States animals are protected
from hunting if they are endangered
Fish-Eating Birds
Threats to Biodiversity:
Biological Magnification


Increasing
concentrations of a
harmful substance in
organisms at higher
trophic levels in a food
chain or web
Example: DDT
Magnification of
DDT Concentration
10,000,000
Large
Fish
1,000,000
Small Fish
100,000
Zooplankton 10,000
Producers
Water
1000
1
Threats to Biodiversity: Introduced Species



Introduced species threaten
biodiversity
Introduced species are organisms
that have been introduced into new
habitats and often become invasive,
reproduce rapidly
Invasive species lack densitydependent limiting factors to keep
their populations in check and take
over areas and out compete existing
species
Native to South America, nutrias have become pests in coastal areas of se
US. These furry rodents eat water plants that protect fragile shorelines
from erosion. This destroys the habitats of species native to those
ecosystems.