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Where to look - Pests!
Insects
 Nematodes
 Weeds
 Diseases
 Rodents and other small mammals
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Original Presentation by Virginia Tech
Modified by the Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office
November 2005
Basic classification
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Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
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Kings Play Chess On Fine Green Silk
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Starting at the beginning:
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4 types of Phyla:
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Arthropoda ( insects, spiders, mites, millipedes)
Aschelminthes (roundworms)
Platyhelminthes (Flatworms, flukes, tapeworms)
Mollusca (snails, slugs, clams)
Arthropoda Phyla is divided into classes:
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Crustacea (Crayfish, sowbugs)
Arachnida (spiders, ticks, mites)
Insecta ( bugs, beetles, butterflies)
Classification cont.
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Insecta Class is divided into Orders:
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Orthoptera (grasshoppers)
Homoptera (aphids)
Coleoptera (beetles)
Lepidoptera (moths, butterflies)
Diptera (flies)
Dermoptera (earwigs)
Hemiptera (true bugs)
Hymenoptera (ants, bees)
Rules to fall into Classes and
Orders
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Arachnida:
must have 2 body segments or parts
 must have 4 pairs of legs
 *some mites are major plant pests
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Insects:
all have three body regions: head, thorax, abdomen
 3 pairs of legs
 1 pair of antennae
 0 to 2 pairs of wings
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Head Body Parts
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Antennae: segmented, vary in form.
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Primarily the smell organ
Mouthparts:
rasping-sucking
 chewing-lapping
 piercing-sucking
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Body Parts
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Thorax: made of 3 sections, each containing a
pair of legs
legs are jointed
 used for digging, feeling, swimming, and cleaning
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Wings - differ for each insect
serve as an identification tool
 “-ptera” means with wings
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Metamorphosis
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Development of the body after birth
Gradual (or incomplete) - insect’s life cycle
changes from egg through the nymph to adult
nymph, similar to adult except for size and color
 aphids, leafhoppers, mole crickets
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Complete - 4 life stages
egg, larvae, pupae, adult
 larvae looks nothing like adult
 pupae is a transformation stage
 caterpillars-moths, grubs-beetles, maggots-flies
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Beneficial Insects
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Not all insects are bad for agriculture
They help:
pollinate plants
 improve soil
 destroy harmful insects
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Other types of pests
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Nematodes
Southern root-knot
nematodes on pepper
plant roots.
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Weeds
This weed is leafy
spurge.
Other types of pests
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Diseases
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Rodents and other
animals