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Ch.10, Sec.4 – The War of 1812
 The War Begins
- England tried to avoid another war with the United States
because they were still fighting against the French
- to avoid war with the Americans, they stopped interfering
with American ships
- the first phase of the war (1812 – 1814), England spent little
time and resources fighting us because of the French
- the second phase of the war (April – December, 1814),
England had defeated France, so they spent all their energies
and resources fighting against the United States
Ch.10, Sec.4 – The War of 1812
- the United States only had 16 ships and 7,000 soldiers when
we declared war on England in the summer of 1812!!!!
 The First Phase of the War
- the U.S. navy rose to the challenge against England and
proved faster & more experienced
- the most important naval
battle occurred on Lake Erie
in September of 1813, which
involved naval officer, Oliver
Hazard Perry
Oliver Hazard
Ch.10, Sec.4 – The War of 1812
- a small fleet of British ships set out on Lake Erie to destroy
the fleet of American ships stationed on the shores
- Perry’s ship, the Lawrence, flew a banner declaring, “Don’t
give up the ship.”
- in just over two hours, Perry’s ships were able to defeat the
British in the Battle of Lake Erie
- Perry relayed a message to William Henry Harrison saying,
“We have met the enemy and they are ours!”
Ch.10, Sec.4 – The War of 1812
- Harrison set out to attack the British after reading Perry’s
message, but found they were no longer on Lake Erie
- the British had retreated to Canada, but Harrison still
pursued and defeated them at the Battle of the Thames
- this victory put an end to the British threat to the Northwest
and also claimed the life of Tecumseh, who died in battle
fighting for the British
Ch.10, Sec.4 – The War of 1812
 The Second Phase of the War
- after defeating Napoleon Bonaparte in 1814, England turned
their full attention to the United States
- by August, they
had burned down
the White House
in Washington
D.C. & attacked
Fort McHenry in
Ch.10, Sec.4 – The War of 1812
- Francis Scott Key, a Washington lawyer, watched the British
attack Fort McHenry all night long and wrote the U.S. national
anthem after discovering the flag in the fort was still flying high
in the morning; “Oh say can you see by the dawn’s early light”
- by September of
1814, British soldiers
tried to cut off New
England, but were
defeated in the Battle
of Lake Champlain
Ch.10, Sec.4 – The War of 1812
- in the south, the British also tried to attack the port of New
Orleans in January of 1815, but were mowed down by
General Andrew Jackson’s men
- England lost 2,000
soldiers and we lost
- slow mail had
delayed news that the
Treaty of Ghent,
ending the war of
1812, had been
signed in December
Ch.10, Sec.4 – The War of 1812
Ch.10, Sec.4 – The War of 1812
 The Legacy of the War
- no clear winner was declared, but Andrew Jackson & Oliver
Hazard Perry were considered heroes
- the Native American
resistance was crushed, and
the U.S. was forced to make
many of its own goods, thus
increasing domestic
- America was about to enter
into a growth phase!