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Transcript
STDs
(Sexually Transmitted Diseases)
Health
Rev. 1/08
AIDS
Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
• CAUSE:
– HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
AIDS
Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
• SYMPTOMS:
– HIV= No Symptoms
– AIDS= Fever, night sweats, fatigue,
opportunistic infections
AIDS
• HOW TRANSMITTED:
– Sex
– Contact with infected body fluids
– Sharing Needles
AIDS
• HOW DIAGNOSED:
– By doctor
– Blood Test
AIDS
• TREATED:
– No CURE
– Antiviral medications can slow/treat some
symptoms
AIDS
• HOW TO AVOID:
– Abstinence (only 100% way to avoid)
– If sex, use condom & Nonoxynol 9
– Avoid use of hypodermic needles
3 of every 5 gonorrhea and chlamydia cases
in California are Among 15 – 24 year olds.
9
GONORRHEA
• AKA: “THE CLAP”
• A SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE
THAT AFFECTS BOTH MEN AND
WOMEN
WHAT CAUSES
GONORRHEA?
• A BACTERIA
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS
OF GONORRHEA?
• MALE:
– APPEAR 2-5 DAYS AFTER INFECTION
– CLEAR OR YELLOW DISCHARGE
– BURNING URINATION
·FEMALE:
-USUALLY NO EARLY SYMPTOMS
BUT CAN STILL PASS ON
-MAY HAVE VAGINAL DISCHARGE
OR BURNING URINATION
**WITHOUT TREATMENT IT CAN SPREAD
AND DAMAGE INTERNAL ORGANS
HOW DO YOU DIAGNOSE
GONORRHEA?
• DOCTOR MUST
• CULTURES DISCHARGE
HOW IS GONORRHEA
TRANSMITTED?
• SEXUAL CONTACT WITH AN
INFECTED INDIVIDUAL
HOW IS GONORRHEA
TREATED?
• PRESCRIPTION ANTIBIOTICS
HOW DO I AVOID GETTING
GONORRHEA?
• ABSTINENCE IS THE BEST WAY
• IF YOU CHOOSE TO BE SEXUALLY
ACTIVE PROTECT YOURSELF FROM
GONORRHEA BY USING A CONDOM
Caution…
About half of all males
with Gonorrhea or Chlamydia
will NOT have signs or symptoms such as discharge or painful urination.
17
Caution…
About 4 of 5 females with
Gonorrhea or Chlamydia will
NOT have any signs or symptoms.
18
CHLAMYDIA
WHAT IS CHLAMYDIA?
• THE MOST COMMON
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED
DISEASE
WHAT CAUSES
CHLAMYDIA?
• A BACTERIA
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS
OF CHLAMYDIA?
• MOST HAVE NO EARLY SYMPTOMS
• MALE:
– BURNING OR PAINFUL URINATION
– DISCHARGE
– SORENESS OF SCROTUM
• FEMALE:
– FREQUENT AND PAINFUL URINATION
– ABDOMINAL PAIN
– POSSIBLE VAGINAL DISCHARGE
HOW IS CHLAMYDIA
TRANSMITTED?
• SEXUAL CONTACT
• TOUCHING EYES AFTER TOUCHING
INFECTED GENITAL AREAS
HOW IS CHLAMYDIA
DIAGNOSED?
• BY A DOCTOR
• CERVICAL SMEAR OR
• ANALYZING FLUID FROM PENIS
HOW IS CHLAMYDIA
TREATED?
• ANTIBIOTICS
• IF LEFT UNTREATED IT CAN CAUSE
INFERTILITY IN BOTH MALES AND
FEMALES
• IF UNTREATED MAY CAUSE PID IN
FEMALES
HOW DO I AVOID GETTING
CHLAMYDIA?
• ABSTINENCE IS BEST
• IF MUST BE SEXUALLY ACTIVE USE
A CONDOM
PID
(Pelvic
Inflammatory
Disease)
WHAT IS PID?
• INFECTION OF THE UTERUS,
FALLOPIAN TUBES, OR OVARIES
• ONLY AFFECTS FEMALES
Young women who have
chlamydia without any signs or
symptoms can still develop PID
29
N
O
R
M
A
L
• OVARIES: WHITE
• FALLOPIAN TUBES: FILLED WITH BLUE
DYE
P
E
L
V
I
S
WHAT CAUSES PID?
• BACTERIA
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS
OF PID?
•
•
•
•
•
SMELLY DISCHARGE
PAINFUL URINATION
ABDOMINAL PAIN
FEVER
NAUSEA
HOW IS PID TRANSMITTED?
• STDs CAUSE SUCH AS GONORRHEA
AND CHLAMYDIA
• ABORTIONS
• INSERTION OF IUDs
HOW IS PID DIAGNOSED?
• DOCTOR
• PELVIC EXAM
HOW IS PID TREATED?
• ANTIBIOTICS
– USUALLY REQUIRES MORE THAN ONE
BECAUSE INFECTION IS CAUSED BY
MORE THAN ONE ORGANISM
• MAY REQUIRE HOSPITILIZATION
FOR SEVERE CASES
ADHESIONS
• PUS FROM PID RAN TOWARDS LIVER
CAUSING ADHESIONS BETWEEN THE LIVER
AND THE DIAPHRAGM
• CAUSES PAIN IN RIGHT UPPER PART OF THE
ABDOMEN
• SHOWS HOW MUCH DAMAGE CAN BE DONE
HOW DO I AVOID PID?
• ABSTINENCE IS BEST
• IF YOU CHOOSE TO BE
SEXUALLY ACTIVE USE A
CONDOM
PUBIC LICE
AKA: CRABS
WHAT IS PUBIC LICE?
• AN INFESTATION OF
PARASITES
WHAT CAUSES PUBIC LICE?
• A PARASITE
–(BUG)
PUBIC LICE PICTURE
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS
OF PUBIC LICE?
• ITCHING IN THE GENITAL
AREA
HOW IS PUBIC LICE
TRANSMITTED?
• SEXUAL CONTACT
• BEDDING
• TOILETS
HOW IS PUBIC LICE
DIAGNOSED?
• DOCTOR
• VISUAL EXAM OF THE AREA
HOW IS PUBIC LICE
TREATED?
• MEDICATED SHAMPOOS AND
LOTIONS
HOW DO I AVOID GETTING
PUBIC LICE?
• ABSTINECE IS BEST
SCABIES
WHAT IS SCABIES?
• A PARASITIC INFECTION
WHAT CAUSES SCABIES?
• A TINY MITE
– (BUG)
SCABIES PICTURE
burrow under the skin and
cause severe itching. This can
produce sores.
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS
OF SCABIES?
• ITCHING
• SORES
• BURROW-TYPE LINES
HOW IS SCABIES
TRANSMITTED?
• SEXUAL CONTACT
HOW IS SCABIES
DIAGNOSED?
• DOCTOR
• MICROSCOPIC EXAM OF SCRAPINGS
FROM BURROWS
HOW IS SCABIES TREATED?
• MEDICATED SHAMPOO AND
LOTION
HOW DO I AVOID SCABIES?
• ABSTINENCE
• IF YOU CHOOSE TO BE SEXUALLY
ACTIVE USE A CONDOM
SYPHILIS
WHAT IS SYPHILIS AND
WHAT CAUSES IT?
• A SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED
DISEASE
• CAUSED BY BACTERIA
WHAT ARE SYMPTOMS OF
SYPHILIS?
• EARLY STAGE:
– CHANCRE
• HARD, ROUND, PAINLESS SORE
• APPEARS 2-4 WEEKS AFTER
INFECTED
** IF NOT TREATED GOES INTO
SECOND STAGE
Syphilis chancre upper lip
not painful
passed by kissing or oral sex
thinks it is from shaving or from sun
Syphilis chancre female
Painless
Highly contagious from
first day
May not get sores for 1090 days
SECOND STAGE SYPHILIS
• RED, RAISED BUMPS THAT DARKEN
AND OOZE
• MOUTH SORES
• HEADACHE
• FEVER
• ** IF NO TREATMENT CAN GO TO 3RD
STAGE
Secondary Syphilis
white patches on the tongue
highly contagious
Secondary Syphilis
female
looks like warts
highly contagious
THIRD STAGE SYPHILIS
• CAN BE DORMANT FOR 1-40 YEARS
THEN BEGIN 3RD STAGE
• ULCERS FORM
• CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
DAMAGED
• NERVE SYSTEM DAMAGE
• PARALYSIS & MENTAL ILLNESS
• POSSIBLY DEATH
HOW IS SYPHILIS
TRANSMITTED?
• SEXUAL INTERCOURSE
• CONTACT WITH SORE
• MOM TO BABY
Baby infected with Syphilis
HOW IS SYPHILIS
DIAGNOSED?
• DOCTOR
• EXAMINING SORES
• BLOOD TEST
HOW IS SYPHILILS
TREATED?
• ANTIBIOTICS
– PENICILLIN
HOW DO I AVOID GETTING
SYPHILIS?
• ABSTINENCE
• IF SEXUALLY ACTIVE, USE A
CONDOM
• Syphilis
– Painless
– Wearing a condom but
not protected
– A condom will not
protect his next partner
VAGINITIS
WHAT IS VAGINITIS?
• ANY TYPE OF VAGINAL
INFECTION
• MICROBES FROM THIS CAN
ENTER THE MALE URETHRAL
TRACT
WHAT CAUSES VAGINITIS?
• YEAST-LIKE FUNGUS
• PARASITE
• OR BACTERIA
WHAT ARE SOME
SYMPTOMS OF VAGINITIS?
• ITCHING
• SMELLY DISCHARGE
• MEN WHO MICROBES HAVE BEEN
PASSED TO MAY:
– HAVE ITCHING
– BURNING URINATION
– RED SWOLLEN PENIS
HOW IS VAGINITIS
TRANSMITTED?
• SEXUAL CONTACT
• WITHOUT SEX DISEASE CAN STILL
OCCUR AND THEN BE PASSED
SEXUALLY
– VAGINAL ENVIRONMENT CAN
INFLUENCE BACTERIAL GROWTH
HOW IS VAGINITIS
DIAGNOSED?
• DOCTOR EXAM
• POSSIBLE CULTURE
HOW IS VAGINITIS
TREATED?
• CREAMS
• PILLS
HOW CAN I AVOID
VAGINITIS?
• AVOID TIGHT CROTCH CLOTHES
• WEAR COTTOM INSTEAD OF NYLON
UNDERWEAR
• WASH REGULARLY AND PAT DRY
• SEXUAL ABSTINENCE
• USE CONDOM IF SEXUALLY ACTIVE
Caution:
Yeast and bacterial vaginosis (BV) are not
considered sexually transmitted infections …
BUT, symptoms caused by these
organisms may mimic other STDs
If you are having sex, and think you have one
of these infections, it is important to get it
checked out by a doctor or nurse and NOT
treat it with over the counter medications.
79
HERPES
WHAT IS HERPES?
• STD
• SORES OR BLISTERS AROUND
GENITALS
WHAT CAUSES HERPES?
• VIRUS
–HERPES SIMPLEX 2
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS
OF HERPES?
•
•
•
•
RED, PAINFUL BUMPS OR PIMPLES
PIMPLES BECOME BLISTERS WITH PUS
BLISTERS BREAK OPEN
SORES DRY OUT AND CRUST OVER
– HEALING TAKES ABOUT 1-3 WEEKS
• POSSIBLY: BURNING URINATION,
DISCHARGE, FLU-LIKE SYMPTOMS
• Herpes Male
• Painful
• Herpes Male
• Infection of the
foreskin
• Painful
• Swollen
Herpes Female
very painful
may need catheter to urinate
Herpes Blisters
Open sores are
open doors
for HIV to
enter or exit
the body.
Seattle STD/HIV Prevention Training Center
Source: University of Washington
87
Caution…
Most people with herpes
don’t know they are infected
because their symptoms
are mild or absent!!
88
HOW IS HERPES
TRANSMITTED?
• SEXUAL CONTACT WITH AN
INFECTED PERSON WHO MAY OR
MAY NOT HAVE ACTIVE
SYMPTOMS
HOW IS HERPES
DIAGNOSED?
• DOCTOR
• CLINICAL EXAM OF FLUID OR
SORE CULTURE
HOW IS HERPES TREATED?
• THERE IS NO CURE
• ANTIVIRAL DRUGS CAN BE GIVEN
DURING OUTBREAKS TO HELP SORES
HEAL
HOW DO I AVOID HERPES?
• ABSTINENCE
• CONDOM USE IF NO VISIABLE
OUTBREAK LESSENS RISK
• CONDOMS DON’T PROTECT IF THERE
IS AN OUTBREAK
– YOU SHOULD WAIT 10 DAYS AFTER THE SORES
HAVE HEALED BEFORE HAVING ANY SEXUAL
CONTACT
HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS
GENITAL WARTS
WHAT IS HPV?
• WARTS AROUND GENITALS
AND ANUS
WHAT CAUSES HPV?
• HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS
OF HPV?
• WARTS APPEAR A FEW WEEKS OR
MONTHS AFTER INFECTION
• MALE:
– WARTS USUALLY ON PENIS, FORESKIN,
SCROTUM, AND IN URETHRA
• FEMALE:
– ALONG VAGINAL WALL, CERVIX
• BOTH CAN GET ON MOUTH, LIPS,
EYELIDS, NIPPLES, ANUS, OR RECTUM
• HPV Male
• Not painful
• Small enough that a
woman might not
notice unless she took
the time to exam the
area
Genital Warts
98
Most people with
HPVs do NOT have
the types that cause
visible warts.
99
HOW IS HPV TRANSMITTED?
• SEXUAL CONTACT
HOW IS HPV DIAGNOSED?
• DOCTOR
• CLINICAL EXAM
HOW IS HPV TREATED?
• CRYOTHERAPY (LIQUID NITROGEN)
– FREEZE OFF
• LASER
• CAN REOCCUR BECAUSE VIRUS
STAYS IN SYSTEM
HPV Cervix
Precancerous changes to cervix
upper and lower lips affected
Female after laser treatment
risk of cancer even with laser treatment
risk of premature babies
risk of sterility
HOW DO I AVOID HPV?
• ABSTINENCE
• CONDOMS LOWER RISK
• AVOID SEX IFACTIVE OUTBREAK
EVEN IF USING A CONDOM
NEW!! HPV Vaccine
 Gardasil protects against 4 HPV types
that cause about 70% of cervical cancer
and 90% of genital warts.
 Nearly 100% effective in clinical trials.

Recommended for girls 11-12 years
old, up to age 26.
 Best if given before first sexual intercourse.
If interested, discuss with your parents/doctor.
106
HEPATITIS B
• WHAT IS IT?
– A liver disease
WHAT CAUSES HEPATITIS
B?
• Hepatitis B Virus
Symptoms of Hepatitis B
• Often no symptoms at the beginning
• Symptoms may include: fatigue, loss of
appetite, nausea, fever, stomach pain,
yellowish (jaundiced) skin and eyes,
brownish urine
A person with Jaundice caused by
acute Hepatitis infection. You can
see how the whites of his eyes are
yellowed.
HOW IT IS DIAGNOSED
• Blood Test
HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED?
• In body fluids, such as blood, semen,
vaginal fluids, and saliva
• Sex w/ infected partner (often anal sex)
• Mom to baby
• Needles
HOW IS IT TREATED?
• No Cure
• Treated with bed rest
• Can be life threatening or lead to long-term
chronic hepatitis
• Can increase risks of getting other liver
diseases such as cirrhosis
HOW DO I AVOID HEPATITIS
B?
•
•
•
•
Abstinence is best
If sex, use Condom
Avoid oral-anal sexual contact
Preventable with vaccination
TRICHOMONIASIS
• What is it?
– common sexually transmitted disease (STD)
that affects both women and men
WHAT CAUSES IT?
• Caused by the single-celled protozoan
parasite
• Women:
SYMPTOMS
– Some symptoms may include:
• a frothy, yellow-green vaginal discharge with a strong
odor
• discomfort during intercourse and urination,
• irritation and itching of genitals area
• Men:
– Most no signs or symptoms
– Some symptoms may include:
• penis irritation
• mild discharge
• slight burning after urination or ejaculation.
HOW TRICHOMONIASIS IS
DIAGNOSED
• Doctor
• Physical exam & lab test
• The parasite is harder to detect in men than
in women
HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED?
• Sex with infected partner
HOW IS IT TREATED?
• Prescription drugs
• Given by mouth in a single dose.
HOW DO I AVOID
TRICHOMONIASIS?
• Abstinence
• If sex, use Condom