Life in Ancient Egypt Several million people lived in ancient Egypt. But they didn't own anything - not their house, not their jewelry or pets or crops or anything. The only person who owned in ancient Egypt was the pharaoh. The pharaoh owned everything. The pharaoh was in charge of everything. To help him do a good job, the pharaoh had helpers - lots and lots of helpers. Some helpers were members of the royal family. Others were people who had worked their way up the government ladder. Each pharaoh had an organized army, a police force, and a huge number of ministers and government officials to assist him. The ancient Egyptians loved titles. So it's not surprising that government officials gave themselves all kinds of titles, some quite elaborate. But in ancient Egypt, the only title that really mattered besides the title of Pharaoh was that of “Vizier”. The Vizier was Pharaoh's right hand man. Everyone reported to the official above them. The very top officials reported to the Vizier. The Vizier reported to the Pharaoh every day on what was happening all over Egypt. The Vizier was also the judge of the high court. If you had a problem and it was not solved in the local courts, or in the provincial courts, you could bring your problem in front of the Vizier on a first come, first served basis. It was dangerous. The Vizier's decision was final. You could end up in more trouble than you started with. But the Vizier tried to be fair. He had to explain aloud the reason for his decision in each case so that everyone who came to court that day could hear those reasons. This system of government worked successfully in ancient Egypt for hundreds and hundreds of years. Ancient Egyptians - Food Although Egypt is a hot, desert country where the lack of water makes it difficult to grow crops and raise animals, the annual flooding of the river Nile (inundation) between the months of June and September made the Nile Valley one of the most fertile areas of the ancient world.When the river flooded, mud and silt was deposited onto the surrounding area. This soil was rich and fertile and made good farming land. The main crops grown were wheat and barley. Wheat was made into bread which was one of the main foods eaten by both rich and poor ancient Egyptians. First the grain was made into flour. It was then made into dough with water and yeast which was placed into a clay mould before being cooked in a stone oven. Barley was used to make beer. Beer was drank by both rich and poor. Wine was made from grapes, pomegranates and plums were enjoyed by the rich. The rich ancient Egyptians' ate meat - (beef, goat, mutton), fish from the Nile (perch, catfish, mullet) or poultry (goose, pigeon, duck, heron, crane) on a daily basis. Poor Egyptians only ate meat on special occasions but ate fish and poultry more often. Meat, fish and poultry was roasted or boiled. It was flavoured with salt, pepper, cumin, coriander, sesame, dill and fennel. Meat, fish and poultry that was not eaten quickly was preserved by salting or drying. A variety of vegetables were grown and eaten by the ancient Egyptians including onions, leeks, garlic, beans, lettuce, lentils, cabbages, radishes and turnips.Fruit including dates, figs, plums and melons were eaten for dessert Ancient Egypt: Pyramid TimeLine 2700 BC - Step Pyramid built; 'Bent' Pyramid built; North Pyramid built 2600 BC - Pyramids of Giza built Great Sphinx 2400 BC - Pyramid built for Unas 2300 BC - Pyramid building stopped 2000 BC - Pyramid building resumed 1800 BC - Last pyramids built in Egypt 1300 BC - Khaemwaset restored the pyramid of Unas 500 BC - Herodotus visited the pyramids 100 BC - Diodorus Siculus visited the pyramids 800 AD – 820 Caliph al-Mamun broke into the Great Pyramid 900 AD - Casing blocks stripped off Giza pyramids 1700 AD - Travellers and explorers began exploring pyramids 1798- Battle of the Pyramids 1900 AD - 1954- Two boat pits found next to the Great Pyramid. 1992- Robot explored air shafts in Great Pyramid History TimeLine Dates and Facts 3500 BC - Early settlers in the Nile valley 3100 BC - Hieroglyphic script developed & Narmer unified Upper and Lower Egypt 2700 BC - First stone pyramid built 2600 BC - Pyramids of Giza built 2200 BC - Various kings ruled Egypt 2100 BC - 2055- Mentuhotep II gained control of entire country 1900 BC - Agricultural development of the Faiyum. Earliest parts of Temple of Karnak built. Egyptians control Nubia 1700 BC - Hyksos rulers took control of Delta region 1600 BC - Ahmose unified country 1500 BC - Hatshepsut became pharaoh 1400 BC - Akhenaten changed Egyptian religion. Tutankhamun became pharaoh. Traditional religion returned. 1300 BC - Hypostyle hall built at Temple of Karnak 1274 - Ramesses II fought in Battle of Kadesh 1100 BC - Upper and Lower Egypt split 800 BC - 728- Nubian king Piy conquered Egypt 600 BC - 525- Persians conquered Egypt 400 BC - 332- Alexander the Great conquered Egypt 305- Ptolemy I became pharaoh 200 BC - 196- Rosetta Stone carved 100 BC - 31- Battle of Actium. 30- Cleopatra VII died. 300 AD - Last use of hieroglyphic writing 600 AD - 642- Egypt conquered by Arabs 800 AD - 820- Caliph al Mamun entered the Great Pyramid 1000 AD - 969- City of Cairo founded. Casing blocks stripped off Giza pyramids. 500 AD - 1517- Ottoman Turks ruled Egypt 1700 AD - 1798- Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt 1799- Rosetta Stone found 1800 AD - Travellers and explorers began uncovering the monuments of ancient Egypt. 1822- Hieroglyphs deciphered 1859- 1869 Suez Canal built Egyptologists began formal excavations in Egypt. 1900 AD - 1922- Howard Carter discovered the tomb of Tutankhamun 1953- Egypt became independent 1960- Aswan High Dam built Mummification Timelines 3100 BC - Early burials in sand 2700 BC - Earliest mummies made by this date 2600 BC - Embalming process developed. Internal organs are removed during embalming 2400 BC - Pyramid texts first used 2100 BC - Coffin texts first used 1700 BC - Removing brain became standard 1600 BC - Book of the Dead first used 1000 BC - Internal organs returned to body after embalming.Embalmed body is stuffed so it looks lifelike 100 AD - Mummy portraits used 200 AD - Mummy portraits stop being used 1500 AD - Ground up mummies 1800 AD - 1881- Group of royal mummies found. Mummy of Ramesses II unwrapped. 1900 AD - 1923- Mummy of Tutankhamun unwrapped. Medical tests done on mummies.