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Look at the map of the world without volcanoes
Then compare it to the map of the world with volcanoes
Answer these questions:
a. Do you see any patterns?
b. Can you think of any possible explanations for the patterns you see?
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Answer these questions:
a. How do volcanoes form?
b. What are the four primary types of volcanoes? Name and describe each type in detail.
Encourage students to sketch the shape of each type and note its plate tectonic setting
(i.e., over hot spots, spreading centers, or subduction zones).
c. Where do volcanoes form?
d. Rocks are classified by what they are made of and how they form. Igneous rocks always
begin as magma. What are the two main types of igneous rocks, and what is the main
difference between them? How does each type form into solid rock?
For extra information, copy/paste this link
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Answer these questions:
a. Will an effusive eruption have more gas and be more dense (viscous) than an explosive
flow, or will it be less gaseous and less viscous? How does each type of eruption cause
b. Which type of eruption appears to be the more hazardous to humans? Explain your
c. Of the numerous hazards caused by volcanic eruptions, list and describe at least three that
cause damage on a local level, and at least one that has global implications.
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Answer these questions:
a. How do lava tubes form, and where are they most likely to be found?
b. What is the difference between how two common cave features -- stalactites and
stalagmites -- form in limestone caves and how they form in lava tubes?
c. Besides stalactites and stalagmites, choose three lava tube features that interest you, and
explain how they form.
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Answer these questions:
a. Why does scientist Michael Garcia refer to the basalt he is walking on as "the youngest
real estate on Earth"?
b. What does viscous mean?
c. For what scientific reason does Dr. Garcia quickly quench the hot lava with water?
d. What has careful study of the composition of the lavas from Kilauea and Mauna Loa
revealed about their origins and relationship?
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a. Answer these questions:
Was the Mount Pinatubo eruption an effusive or explosive eruption?
b. Based on your observations, what type of volcano is Mount Pinatubo? On what evidence
do you base your answer?
c. Over what type of plate boundary is this volcano located? Is this tectonic setting
consistent with your answer to the first question?
d. Because volcanologists were able to accurately predict the timing of this eruption, the
lives of hundreds of people who evacuated the nearby area were probably saved. What
evidence did the scientists observe that prompted them to call for an evacuation?
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Answer these questions:
a. What problems did the inaccurate eruption forecast of the Tungurahua volcano cause for
the people of Ecuador and what difficulties might this cause for community officials in
the future?
b. What three variables do scientists monitor when attempting to forecast volcanic
c. What are some of the hurdles that volcanologists face when trying to make accurate
eruption forecasts?
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Answer these questions
a. Based on your observations of this video and previous videos you have seen, what type of
volcanoes are Kilauea and the other Hawaiian volcanoes? On what evidence do you base
your answer?
b. Does Hawai'i experience effusive or explosive eruptions?
c. Explain Hawai'i's setting in terms of plate boundaries. What makes it so unusual?
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Answer these questions
a. Describe what is happening throughout the eruption. What kind of material is being
ejected by the volcano? Do you see lava? What happens to all of the ash?
b. Based on your observations, what type of volcano produced this eruption? On what
evidence do you base your answer?
c. Based on the before and after images, identify ways in which both the volcano and
surrounding area were changed by the 1980 eruption.
d. Based on the satellite images, how has the affected area changed in the time since the
e. What are some similarities and differences in the destruction caused by effusive and
explosive eruptions? What, if anything, was surprising to you about the blowdown, lahar,
and pyroclastic flow images?
f. What factors play a part in the recovery of vegetation (and wildlife) in areas affected by
volcanic eruptions?
Final assessment questions
1. What are the differences between the four types of volcanoes? Is there one distinguishing
characteristic, or more than one?
2. Which types of volcanoes form on divergent plate boundaries? On convergent plate
boundaries? What is a hot spot?
3. Is it possible for scientists to predict when a volcano will erupt so they can call for the
evacuation of the area around it? If so, what kind of evidence do the scientists need to
make such a prediction?
4. Describe the hazards that volcanoes present for humans who live near them.