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Principles of
Pharmacology
Chapter 30
Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter 30
Lesson 30.1
Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Learning Objectives
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Pronounce, define, and spell the Key Terms.
Differentiate a drug’s chemical, generic, and
brand or trade name.
Define the Drug Enforcement Administration
(DEA) and explain why drugs are categorized
in five schedules of the Controlled Substance
Act.
List each part of a prescription.
Describe the use of drug reference materials.
Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Introduction
Pharmacology is the science of
researching and developing drugs and
studying their uses.
Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Overview of Drugs
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Drug derivatives
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Organic: drugs derived from living organisms such
as plants or animals
Inorganic: drugs synthesized in the laboratory
Identifying drugs
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Chemical name: drug’s chemical formula
Generic name: name that any business firm may
use
Brand or trade name: registered trademark
Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dispensing of Drugs
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Drugs are classified in two categories:
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Patent medicines (over-the-counter)
• Drugs that can be obtained without a prescription
Prescription drugs
• Also referred to as “ethical drugs”
• Supplied by a pharmacist who has received a
prescription
Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Prescription
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
Written order by a physician or dentist for the
preparation and administration of a medicine
by the pharmacist
Prescription terminology
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Superscription: patient name, address, date, Rx
Inscription: name and quantity of the drug
Subscription: directions for mixing the drug
Signature: instructions to the patient on how
to take the drug
Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fig. 30-1 Example of a prescription pad.
(Courtesy of Colwell, a division of Patterson Companies, Inc, 800-637-1140)
Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Table 30-1 Common Prescription Abbreviations
Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Drug-Reference Materials
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Physicians’ Desk Reference
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Also referred to as the “PDR”
Updated source of information supplied by
drug companies about their products
Available as a bound text or a CD-ROM
Package inserts

Information sheet describing a drug for the patient
• Side effects
• Adverse and long-term effects
• Precautions
• Contraindications
• Dosage and route
Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter 30
Lesson 30.2
Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Learning Objectives






Cite the factors in determining the dosage of
a drug.
Describe how mediations are administered.
Describe the stages a drug goes through in
the body.
Define the DEA and explain why drugs are
categorized in five schedules of the
Controlled Substance Act.
Describe the classification of prescription
drugs and their effects.
Describe the effects of drug use.
Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Drug Dosage
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Dosage is the amount of a drug that a patient
takes.
Specific factors in determining the dosage
are:
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Age
Weight
Time of day at which the drug is taken
Drug form
Patient tolerance of the drug
Other drugs the patient is taking
Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fig. 30-2 Routes of drug administration.
(From Young A, Procter D: Kinn’s the medical assistant: an applied learning approach, ed 9, Philadelphia, 2003, Saunders;
Chester GA: Modern medical assisting, Philadelphia, 1998, Saunders; and Daniel SJ, Harfst SA: Mosby’s dental hygiene: concepts,
cases, and competencies, 2004 update, St Louis, Mosby 2004)
A, Oral route.
B, Topical route.
(Cont’d)
Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fig. 30-2 Routes of drug administration.
(From Young A, Procter D: Kinn’s the medical assistant: an applied learning approach, ed 9, Philadelphia, 2003, Saunders;
Chester GA: Modern medical assisting, Philadelphia, 1998, Saunders; and Daniel SJ, Harfst SA: Mosby’s dental hygiene: concepts,
cases, and competencies, 2004 update, St Louis, 2004, Mosby 2004.)
(Cont’d)
C, Transdermal route.
D, Inhalation route.
(Cont’d)
Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fig. 30-2 Routes of drug administration.
(From Young A, Procter D: Kinn’s the medical assistant: an applied learning approach, ed 9, Philadelphia, 2003, Saunders;
Chester GA: Modern medical assisting, Philadelphia, 1998, Saunders; and Daniel SJ, Harfst SA: Mosby’s dental hygiene: concepts,
cases, and competencies, 2004 update, St Louis, Mosby 2004)
(Cont’d)
E, Transdermal route.
F, Injection route.
Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Table 30-2 Stages of Drug Action in the Body
Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Controlled Substances Act
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DEA
Scheduled drugs:
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Schedule I: no current accepted medical
usefulness and a high potential for abuse
Schedule II: high potential for abuse but accepted
medical usefulness as well
Schedule III: less abuse potential and accepted
medical uses
Schedule IV: low abuse potential and accepted
medical uses.
Schedule V: not required to be prescribed
Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Classification of Drugs

Why do I need to know different drug
classifications?
Helpful when reviewing a patient’s drug history
 Gives knowledge of patients requiring
premedication
 Useful in dental procedures requiring different
types of pain control
 Assistance in a medical emergency

Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Antibiotic Prophylaxis
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Antibiotics are prescribed to an uninfected
patient to prevent bacterial colonization.
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The most common application is the prevention of
infective endocarditis.
Bacteria are abundant in the oral cavity.
• The antibiotic decreases the bacterial colonization or
adherence.
Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Antibiotic Prophylaxis
Recommendations
Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Table 30-3 Recommended Doses
and Regimens for
Common Antibiotics
Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adverse Drug Effects
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Side effects
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Allergic reactions
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Sudden onset of an allergic reaction to a drug
Drug tolerance
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Increased sensitivity to a substance
Anaphylaxis
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Body’s reaction to a drug
Loss of effectiveness of a drug
Drug addiction

Physical dependence on a certain drug
Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Common Side Effects of Medications
Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.